Efek Pemberian Fosfor terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Status Hara pada Bibit Manggis

Liferdy Lukman

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Fosfor (P) dikatakan sebagai salah satu kunci kehidupan, karena fungsinya yang sangat sentral dalam proses kehidupan. Fungsi utama P dalam tanaman adalah menyimpan dan mentransfer energi dalam bentuk  ADP dan ATP. Energi diperoleh dari fotosintesis dan metabolisme karbohidrat yang disimpan dalam campuran fosfat untuk digunakan dalam proses-proses pertumbuhan dan produksi. Tanpa P, proses-proses tersebut tidak dapat berlangsung. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan Juni 2004 sampai Mei 2006 di Kebun Pembibitan Pusat Kajian Buah Tropika Institut Pertanian Bogor, Tajur, Bogor pada ketinggian 200 m dpl.. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mendapatkan pengaruh P terhadap pertumbuhan dan status hara P pada bibit manggis. Tanaman manggis umur 17 bulan digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Penelitian disusun dalam rancangan acak kelompok, dengan enam perlakuan dan enam ulangan. Perlakuan terdiri atas enam tingkat dosis pupuk P, yaitu 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, dan  400 ppm/tanaman. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa P memberikan pengaruh nyata terhadap pertumbuhan bibit manggis, terutama untuk peubah tinggi tanaman, panjang cabang, jumlah cabang, dan jumlah daun. Konsentrasi P daun berdasarkan hasil analisis, statusnya dikelompokkan sebagai berikut: <0,05% = sangat rendah, 0,05-<0,10% = rendah, 0,10-<0,19 = sedang, dan >0,19% = sangat tinggi. Untuk mendapatkan pertumbuhan maksimum dibutuhkan dosis pupuk P optimum sebanyak 130 ppm P/tanaman bibit. Bila mempergunakan model linear plateau maka dosis yang direkomendasikan adalah 84 ppm P/tanaman bibit. Implikasi dari hasil penelitian ini adalah sebagai pedoman dalam menyusun rekomendasi pemupukan P untuk bibit manggis.

ABSTRACT. Liferdi, L. 2010. The Effect of Phosphor Application on the Growth and Nutrient Status of Mangosteen Seedling. Phosphor (P) is often called as a key in life because of it’s central function in the living process.  The most essential function of P in plant is energy storage and transfer within adenosine di and tri phosphates (ADP and ATP) forms. Energy obtained from photosynthesis and metabolism of carbohydrate is stored in phosphate compounds for subsequent use in growth and reproduction processes. Without P, those processes can not occur. The experiment was conducted on June 2004 until May 2006 at the nursery of Center for Tropical Fruits Study, Bogor Agricultural University (elevation 200 m asl.). The objective of this experiment was to examine the effect of P on the growth and nutrient status of mangosteen seedling. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design, consisting of  six treatments with six replications. The treatments were six levels of P dosage: 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 ppm/plant. All treatments were applied on 17-months mangosteen seedlings. The results showed that P significantly affected plant height, branch length, branch number, and leaf number of mangosteen seedlings. Based on leaf tissue analysis, the leaf with concentration of P less than 0.05% was classified as very low, 0.05 to <0.10% was low, 0.10 to <0.19% was medium, and >0.19% was very high. To obtain the maximum growth of mangosteen seedling the optimum dosage of P of 130 ppm P/plant was needed. By using a linear plateau model, the recommended dosage was 84 ppm P/plant. The results  of this research can be used as a guide to estimate  P fertilization, especially  for mangosteen seedling.


Keywords


Garcinia mangostana; Bibit manggis; Pertumbuhan; Status hara P; Dosis rekomendasi.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v20n1.2010.p%25p

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