Eksplorasi dan Pengaruh Cendawan Endofit yang Berasal dari Akar Tanaman Cabai Terhadap Pertumbuhan Benih Cabai Merah (The Exploration and Effect of Endophytic Fungus Isolated from Chilli’s Root to Growth of Chilli Seedling)

Anna Feronika Cindra Irawati, Kikin Hamzah Mutaqin, Maggy Tenawidjaja Suhartono, Yudi Sastro, nFN Sulastri, nFN Widodo

Abstract


Cendawan endofit diketahui memiliki kemampuan dalam menghasilkan metabolit sekunder yang sering berdampak terhadap pertumbuhan inangnya, seperti meningkatkan ketahanan tanaman terhadap kondisi cekaman biotik dan abiotik, maupun meningkatkan pertumbuhannya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengisolasi dan mengetahui pengaruh aplikasi cendawan endofit yang diperoleh dari akar tanaman cabai terhadap pertumbuhan bibit tanaman cabai besar (Capsicum annuum L.). Kegiatan penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium Mikrobiologi dan Rumah Kaca BPTP Jakarta, sejak September 2012 hingga Agustus 2013. Penelitian terdiri dari eksplorasi, uji patogenisitas, dan uji efikasi terhadap cendawan endofit. Eksplorasi cendawan endofit dilakukan terhadap sampel akar tanaman cabai sehat dari daerah Garut (Jawa Barat), yang sering digunakan untuk budidaya tanaman cabai dan Cipayung (Jakarta Timur), yang merupakan daerah baru untuk budidaya tanaman cabai. Seleksi awal terhadap isolat cendawan dilakukan dengan uji patogenisitas secara in vitro. Uji efikasi cendawan secara in vivo pada bibit cabai berfungsi untuk mengetahui efek aplikasi cendawan terpilih (46 isolat non patogenik dan 16 isolat potensial patogenik) terhadap pertumbuhan bibit. Hasil eksplorasi menunjukkan bahwa isolat cendawan yang diperoleh dari akar tanaman cabai daerah Garut, secara makroskopis memiliki keragaman lebih tinggi dibanding dengan keragaman isolat dari daerah Cipayung. Uji patogenisitas menunjukkan bahwa isolat cendawan yang diuji cenderung didominasi oleh cendawan yang bersifat patogenik dan potensial patogenik. Uji efikasi cendawan endofit terpilih dalam mempengaruhi pertumbuhan vegetatif bibit, menunjukkan bahwa 74,19% isolat yang diuji memiliki kemampuan memicu pertumbuhan bibit pada kondisi media tanam steril. sebanyak 34 isolat dari isolat-isolat tersebut diketahui merupakan isolat yang sejak awal bersifat nonpatogenik dan 12 isolat yang awalnya bersifat potensial patogenik.

Keywords

Cendawan nonpatogenik; Metabolit sekunder; Fitohormon

Abstract

Endophytic fungi are known be able to produce secondary metabolites that often impact on the growth of its host, such as increasing the resistance of plant to biotic and abiotic stress conditions, as well as enhance its growth. This study aimed to isolate and determine the effect of endophytic fungi applications that isolated from the roots of chilli plants to the growth of chilli seeds (Capsicum annuum L.). The research activities carried out in the Laboratory of Microbiology and Greenhouse BPTP Jakarta, from September 2012 to August 2013. The study was consisted the exploration, pathogenicity test, and the efficacy test of the endophytic fungi. The exploration of endophytic fungus carried out on samples of chilli healthy plant roots from the area of Garut (West Java), which is often used for the cultivation of chilli plants, and Cipayung (East Jakarta), which is a new area for the cultivation of chilli plants. The initial selection of the isolates of the fungi carried by the pathogenicity test in vitro. The efficacy test of the fungus, in vivo, in seedlings of chilli serves to determine the effect application of the fungus that selected on the growth of seedlings. Exploration results indicate that fungi isolates obtained from roots of pepper plants Garut, macroscopically has a higher diversity compared with isolates from regional diversity Cipayung. Pathogenicity test demonstrated that the fungi tested isolates tend to be dominated by a fungus that is pathogenic and potentially pathogenic. Test the efficacy of endophytic fungus chosen in influencing the vegetative growth of seedlings (46 isolates nonpathogenic and 16 isolates potentially pathogenic), showed that 74.19% of isolates tested has the ability to trigger the growth of seedlings at planting medium sterile conditions. As many as 34 isolates from isolates are well known consistence as nonpathogenic isolates and 12 isolates were to be potentially pathogenic isolates on pathogenicity test.


Keywords


Keywords: Nonpathogenic fungus; Secondary metabolite; Phytohormone

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v27n1.2017.p105-112

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