Budidaya Kubis di Dalam Rumah Kasa Dalam Upaya Menekan Serangan Hama (Cultivation of Cabbage in the Netting House in Order to Reduce Pests Infestation)

Laksminiwati Prabaningrum, Tonny Koestoni Moekasan

Abstract


Salah satu kendala dalam budidaya kubis ialah serangan hama utama yaitu ulat daun kubis  Plutella xylostella dan ulat krop kubis Crocidolomia binotalis. Penggunaan penghadang fisik atau rumah kasa sedang dikembangkan sebagai alternatif cara pengendalian selain menggunakan insektisida. Informasi mengenai sejauh mana pengaruh penggunaan rumah kasa terhadap serangan hama-hama tersebut pada budidaya kubis di Indonesia masih terbatas. Oleh karena itu  penelitian untuk menguji kemampuan rumah kasa dalam mencegah serangan hama kubis dilakukan di Kebun Percobaan Margahayu (1250 m dpl.), Balai Penelitian Tanaman Sayuran di Lembang, dari bulan Desember 2014 sampai April 2015. Penelitian disusun menggunakan petak berpasangan dengan dua macam perlakuan, yaitu budidaya kubis di dalam rumah kasa (A) dan budidaya kubis di lahan terbuka (B). Tiap  perlakuan diulang sebanyak empat kali. Aplikasi insektisida dilakukan jika populasi hama telah mencapai ambang pengendalian. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan rumah kasa mampu menekan populasi ulat daun kubis dan kerusakan tanaman oleh serangan ulat krop kubis, sehingga dapat mengurangi jumlah aplikasi insektisida sebesar 62,50%, dengan hasil panen lebih tinggi sebesar 13,75% dan kualitas krop kubis tetap tinggi.

Keywords

Kubis (Brassica oleracea var. capitata); Plutella xylostella; Crocidolomia binotalis; Aplikasi insektisida

Abstract

Infestation of key pests, Plutella xylostella and Crocidolomia binotalis is one of constraints in cabbage cultivation. The use of netting house is being developed as an alternative tactic for controlling the pests. Information of effect of netting house in cabbage cultivation in Indonesia is limited. Therefore the experiment to test the potency of netting house to reduce pests infestation was conducted at Margahayu Research Garden (1,250 m asl.), Indonesian Vegetable Research Institute in Lembang, from December 2014 until April 2015. The experiment was arranged using paired comparison with two treatments and each treatment was replicated four times. The treatments tested were: (A) cabbage cultivation in the netting house and (B) cabbage cultivation in open field. The construction of the netting house made from metal with 2.5 m high. The roof made from the screen with specification of R10-215TrM3-80 mesh 36 with 58 holes/cm2, and the wall with specification of R2-C225TrM2-70 mesh 66 with 127 holes/cm2. Insecticide was applied if the pest population reached the control threshold. The result showed that compared with cabbage cultivation in open field, cabbage cultivation in the netting house: (1) was able to reduce population of P. xylostella larvae and plant damage due to C. binotalis, so that number of insecticide application was reduced by 62.50%, (2) increased the yield by 13.75%, and (3) produced high quality cabbage crop that showed by dietary fibre of 0.88% and density of crop of 3.89 mm/second/100 g.


Keywords


Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata); Plutella xylostella; Crocidolomia binotalis; Insecticide application

Full Text:

PDF

References


Amoabeng, BW, Gurr, GM, Gitau, CW, Nicol, HI, Munyakazi, L & Stevenson, PC 2013, Tri-trophic insecticidal effects of African plants against cabbage pests, diunduh 3 Agustus 2015, .

Asare-Bediako, E, Addo-Quaye, AA & Mohammed, A 2010, ‘Control of diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) on cabbage (Brassica oleracea var capitata) using intercropping with non-host crops’, Am. J. Food Technol., vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 269-74.

Armah, FA 2011, ‘Assesment of pesticide residues in vegetables at the farm gate: Cabbage (Brassica oleracea ) cultivation in Cape Coast, Ghana’, Res. J. Env. Toxicology, vol. 5, issue 3, pp. 180-202.

Ayalew, G 2006, ‘Comparison of yield loss on cabbage from diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) using two insecticides’, Crop Prot., vol. 25, pp. 915-9.

Badan Pusat Statistik & Direktorat Jenderal Hortikultura 2013, Produksi, luas panen, dan produktivitas tanaman hortikultura, diunduh 17 Agustus 2015, .

Badii, KB, Adarkwah, C & Nboyine, JA 2013, ‘Insecticide use in cabbage pest management in Tamale Metropolis of Ghana’, Greener Journal of Agric. Sci., vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 403-11.

Berlinger, MJ, Taylor, RAJ, Lebiush-Mordechi, S, Shalhevet, S & Spharim, I 2002, ‘Efficiency of insect exclusion screens for preventing whitefly transmission of tomato yellow leaf curl virus of tomatoes in Israel’, Bull. Entomol. Res., vol. 92, pp. 367-73.

Boiteau, G & Vernon, RS 2001, Physical barrier for the control of insect pests, physical control methods in plant protection, diunduh 23 Agustus 2015, .

Cai, HJ, You, MS & Lin, C 2010, ‘Effect of intercropping systems on community composition and diversity of predator arthropods in vegetable fields’, Acta Ecol. Sin., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 190-5.

Cai, HJ, Li, S, Ryall, K, You, M & Lin, S 2011, ‘Effect of intercropping of garlic or lettuce with chinese cabbage on the development of larva and pipa of diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella)’, African J. Agric. Res. (AJAR), vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 3609-15.

Chiarappa, L 1971, Crop loss assesment method, FAO manual on the evaluation and prevention of losses by pests, diseases and weeds, Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux.

Debra, KR & Mischeck, D 2014, ‘Onion (Allium cepa) and garlic (Allium sativum) as pest control intercrops in cabbage based intercrop system in Zimbabwe’, IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, vol. 7, issue 2, pp. 13-7.

Dev, V, Raghavendra, K, Singh, SP, Phookan, S, Khound, K & Dash, AP 2010, ‘Wash resistance and residual efficacy of long lasting polyester netting coated with cypermethrin (inceptor) against malaria-transmitting mosquitoes in Assam, North-East India’, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., vol. 104, pp. 273-8.

Elad, Y, Messika, Y, Brand, M, David, DR & Sztejnberg, A 2007, ‘Effect of colored shade nets on pepper powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica)’, Phytoparasitica, vol. 35, pp. 285-99.

Fatnassi, H, Boulard, T, Demrati, H, Bouirden, L & Sappe, G 2002, ‘Ventilation performance of large canarian-type greenhouse equipped with insect-proof nets’, Biosyst. Eng., vol. 82, pp. 97-105.

Gogo, EO, Saidi, M, Itulya, FM, Martin, T & Ngouajio, M 2012, ‘Microclimate modification pusing ecofriendly net for high quality tomato transplant production by small-scale farmers in East Africa’, Hort. Technol., vol. 22, pp. 292-8.

Grzywacs, D, Rossbach, A, Rauf, A, Russell, D, Srinivasan, R & Shelton, AM 2010, ‘Current control methods for diamondback moth and prospect for improved management with lepidopteran-resistant Bt vegetable brassicas in Asia and Africa’, Crop Prot., vol. 29, pp. 68-79.

Hakim, L, Karindah, S & Astuti, LP 2014, ‘Eksplorasi parasitoid telur Plutella xylostella pada pertanaman kubis Brassica oleracea di daerah Malang dan Kota Batu’, J. HPT, vol. 2, no. 3, hlm. 117-22.

Hasyim, A, Nuraida & Trizelia 2009, ‘Patogenisitas jamur entomopatogen terhadap stadia telur dan larva hama kubis, Crocidolomia pavonana Fabricus’, J. Hort., vol. 19, no. 3, hlm. 334-43.

Hutchison, WD, Burkness, EC, Pahl, G & Hurley, TM 2001, ‘Integrating novel technologies for cabbage IPM in te USA: Value of on-farm research’, ESA, vol. 13, issue. 2.

Katsoulas, N, Bartzanas, T, Boulard, T, Mermier, M & Kittas, C 2006, ‘Effect of vent openings and insect screens on greenhouse’, Biosyst. Eng., vol. 93, issue 4, pp. 427-36.

Kayedi, MH, Lines, JD, Haghdoost, AA, Vatandoost, MH, Rassi, Y & Hamisabady, K 2008, ‘Evaluation of the effect of repeated hand washing, sunlight, smoke, and dirt on the persistence of deltamethrin on insecticide-treated nets’, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., vol. 102, pp. 811-6.

Kristanto, SP, Sutjipto & Soekarto 2013, ‘Pengendalian hama pada tanaman kubis dengan sistem tanam tumpangsari’, Berkala Ilmiah Pertanian, vol. 1, no. 1, hlm. 7-9.

Licciardi, S, Assogba-Komlan, F, Siddick, I, Chandre, F, Hougard, JM & Martin, T 2008, ‘A temporary tunnel screen as an ecofriendly method for small-scale farmers to protect cabbage cropsin Benin’, Int. Trop. Insect. Sci., vol. 27, pp. 152-8.

Lingappa, S, Basavanagoud, K, Kulkarni, KA, Patil, RS & Kambrekar, DN 2004, ‘Threat to vegetable production by diamondback moth and its management strategies’, Disease Manag. Fruits and Vegetables, vol. 1, pp. 357-96.

Martin, T, Assogba-Komlan, F, Houndete, T, Hougard, JM & Chandre, F 2006, ‘Efficacy of mosquito netting for sustainable small holder’s cabbage production in Africa’, J. Econ. Entomol., vol. 99, pp. 450-4.

Martin, T, Palix, R, Kamal, A, Deletre, E, Bonafos, R, Simon S & Ngouajio, M 2013, ‘A repellent net as a new technology to protect cabbage crop’, J. Econ. Entomol., vol. 106, no. 4, pp. 1699-706.

Mazlan, N & Mumford, J 2005, ‘Insecticide use in cabbage pest management in the Cameron Highland, Malaysia’, Crop Prot., vol. 24, issue 1, pp. 31-9.

Moekasan, TK, Setiawati, W, Prabaningrum, L, Soehardi, Darmono, S & Saimin 1995, Petunjuk Studi Lapangan PHT Sayuran, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Sayuran & Program Nasional PHT, Departemen Pertanian.

Moekasan, TK & Prabaningrum, L 2012, ‘Penggunaan rumah kasa (netting house) untuk mengatasi serangan organisme pengganggu tumbuhan (OPT) pada budidaya cabai merah di dataran rendah’, J. Hort., vol. 22 no. 1 hlm. 66-76.

Nasir, SM, Hairuddin, MA & Alias, R 2010, ‘Economic benefit of sustainable agricultural production: The case of integrated pest management in cabbage production’, Env. Asia, vol. 3, pp. 168-74.

Neave, SM, Kelly, G & Furlong, MJ 2011, ‘Field evaluation of insect exclusion netting for the management of pests on cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in Solomon Islands’, Proc. the 6th Int. Workshop on Management of Diamondback Moth and Other Crucifer Insect Pests, AVRDC, Thailand, pp. 144-9.

Osei, MK, Osei, K, Braimah, H, Mochiah, MB, Berchie, JN, Bolfrey-Arku, G & Lamptey, JNL 2013, ‘Practices and constraints to cabbage production in urban and periurban Ghana: Focus on Bong Ahafo and Ashanti region’, Basic Res. J. Agric. Sci. and Rev., vol. 2,no. 1, pp. 5-14.

Pokluda, R 2008, ‘Nutritional quality of chinese cabbage from integrated culture’, Hort. Sci. (Prague), vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 145-50.

Prabaningrum, L & Moekasan, TK 2014, ‘Pengelolaan organisme pengganggu tumbuhan utama pada budidaya cabai merah di dataran tinggi’, J. Hort., vol. 24, no. 2, hlm. 179-88.

Reddy, GVP & Guerrero, A 2000, ‘Pheromone based integrated pest management to control diamondback moth Plutella xylostella in cabbage field’, Pest Manag. Sci., vol. 56, issue 10, pp. 882-8.

Reddy, GVP 2011, ‘Comparative effect of integrated pest management and farmers standard pest control practice for managing insect pests on cabbage (Brassica spp.)’, Pest Manag. Sci., vol. 67, issue 8, pp. 980-85.

Sabbour, MM & Sahab, AF 2005, ‘Efficacy of some microbial control agents against cabbage pests in Egypt’, Pakistan J. Biol. Sci., vol. 8, pp. 1351-56.

Sastrosiswojo, S, Setiawati, W, Prabaningrum, L, Moekasan, TK Sulastrini, I, Soeriatmadja, R & Abidin, Z 2001, ‘Ecological impact of Brassica IPM implementation in Indonesia’, ESA, vol. 13, issue 3.

Sholahudin, H & Sulastri, E 2011, ‘Efektivitas caisin sebagai tanaman perangkap patogen untuk pengendalian penyakit akar gada pada kubis’, J. HPT Tropika, vol. 11, no. 1, hlm. 22-7.

Simon, S, Komlan, FA, Adjaito L, Mensah, A, Coffi, HK, Ngouajio, M & Martin, T 2014, ‘Efficacy of insect nets for cabbage production and pest management depending on the net removal frequency and microclimate’, Int. J. Pest Manag., vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 208-16.

Sow, G, Niassy, S, Sall-Sy, D, Arvanitakis, L, Bordat, D & Diarra, K 2013, ‘Effect of timely application of alternated treatments of Bacillus thuringiensis and neem on agronomical particulars of cabbage’, African J. Agric. Res., vol. 8, no. 48, pp. 6164-70.

Stamps, RH 2009, ‘Use of colored shade netting in horticulture’, Hort. Sci., vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 239-41.

Subhan, Setiawati, W & Nurtika, N 2005, ‘Pengaruh tumpangsari tomat dan kubis terhadap perkembangan hama dan hasil’, J. Hort., vol. 15, no. 1, hlm. 22-8.

Takeda, F, Glenn, DM, Callahan, A, Slovin, J & Stutte, GW 2010, ‘Delaying flowering in short-day strawberry transplants with photoselective nets’, Int. J. Fruits Sci., vol. 10, pp. 134-42.

Teitel, M 2007, ‘The effect of screened openings on greenhouse microclimate’, Agric. Forest Meteorology, vol. 143, issue 3-4, pp. 159-75.

Weinberger, K & Srinivasan, R 2009, ‘Farmer’s management of cabbage and cauliflower pests in India and their approaches to crop protection’, J. Asia-Pacific Entomology, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 253-4.

Wolff, XY & Coltman, RR 1990, ‘Productivity of eight leafy vegetable crops grown under shade in Hawaii’, J. Amer. Soc. Hort., Sci., vol. 115, no. 1, pp. 182-8.

Xu, QC, Xu, HL, Qin, FF, Tan, JY, Liu, G & Fujiyama, S 2010, ‘Riley-intercropping into tomato decreases cabbage pest incidence’, Int. J. Food, Agric. and Environ., vol. 8 (2), no. 3-4, pp. 1037-41.

Xu, QC, Fujiyama, S & Xu, HL 2011, ‘Biological pest control by enhancing population of natural enemiesin organic farming systems’, Int. J. Food, Agric. and Environ., vol 9, no. 2, pp. 455-63.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v27n1.2017.p87-94

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.
';



Copyright (c) 2017 Indonesian Center for Horticulture Research and Development

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 


Jurnal Hortikultura (J.Hort) has been indexed :

         

===================================================================================================================

 Creative Commons License
Junal Hortikultura is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at http://ejurnal.litbang.pertanian.go.id/index.php/jhort
Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at www.litbang.pertanian.go.id.

Indonesian Center for Horticulture Research and Development

Jl. Tentara Pelajar No. 3C Kampus Penelitian Pertanian Cimanggu Bogor 16124, Indonesia
Telp.  +62 251-8372096, 7565366, (Ext. 324) (Hunting System)
Faks.  +62 251-8387651, 8575664, 8372096
E-mail: redaksi.jhorti@gmail.com

ISSN: 0853-7097
E-ISSN: 2502-5120

 

free web stats

View My Stats