Teknik Penanaman Benih Bawang Merah Asal True Shallot Seed di Lahan Suboptimal (Planting Method of Seedling of Shallot from True Shallot Seed in Suboptimal Land)

Gina Alya Sopha, Muhammad Syakir, Wiwin Setiawati, nFN Suwandi, Nani Sumarni

Abstract


Keberhasilan produksi umbi  bawang merah dengan menggunakan TSS (True Shallot Seed) di lahan sub optimal tergantung banyak faktor, antara lain umur benih, kerapatan tanaman dan dosis pupuk N. Tujuan penelitian adalah menghasilkan umur benih, kerapatan tanaman, dan dosis pupuk N yang tepat untuk pertumbuhan tanaman dan hasil umbi bawang merah asal TSS yang optimal. Penelitian lapangan dilakukan di lahan sub optimal Subang-Jawa Barat (100 m dpl) dengan jenis tanah Latosol Merah Kuning, dari bulan Juli sampai Oktober 2013. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Kelompok Faktorial, dengan tiga ulangan dan tiga faktor perlakuan. Faktor pertama (A):  Umur benih di persemaian, terdiri atas: a, = 4 minggu setelah semai, a2 = 5 minggu setelah semai, dan a3 = 6 minggu setelah semai. Faktor kedua (B): Kerapatantanaman, terdiri atas: b1 = 150 tanaman/m2 dan b2 = 100 tanaman/m2. Faktor ketiga (C): Dosis pupuk N, terdiri atas: Cl = 150 kg N/ha, C2=225 kg N/ha, dan C3 = 300 kg N/ha.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pertumbuhan tanaman  (tinggi  tanaman  dan  jumlah  daun)  dipengaruhi  oleh  umur  benih,  tetapl  tidak dipengaruhi oleh  kerapatan dan  dosis  pupuk  N. Umur benih 6 minggu setelah 'sernat memberikan tinggi tanaman paling tinggi dan jumlah daun paling banyak. Bobot umbi basah per tanaman tidak dipenqaruhi oleh umur benih, kerapatan tanaman dan dosis pupuk N. Namun bobot umbi basah per petak dipengaruhi oleh kerapatan tanaman. Makin rapat tanaman (150 tanaman/m2) makin tinggi hasil bobot umbi basah per petak. Bobot umbi kering eskip per tanaman dan bobot umbi kering esktp per petak, serta susut bobot umbi dipengaruhi oleh interaksi umur benih dan kerapatan tanaman. Umur benih 6  minggu dengan kerapatan 150 tanaman/rrr  menghasilkan bobot umbi kering eskip per tanaman (11,417 g/tanaman) dan bobot umbi kering eskip per petak  (2,433 kg/2.4 rrr')  paling tinggi, serta susut bobot umbi paling rendah (33,63%). Kombinasi umur benih, kerapatan tanaman dan dosis pupuk N yang menghasilkan bobot umbi basah dan bobot kering eskip tertinggi adalah umur biblt 6 minggu setelah semai, kerapatan tanaman 150 tanarnan/m' dan dosis 225 kg N/ha, yaitu  masing­masing sebesar 4,195 kg/2,4m2 dan  2,80 kg/2,4 m2. Penggunaan benih asal TSS dapat digunakan sebagai alternatif dalam budidaya bawang merah.  

Keywords

Allium ascalonicum; True shallot seed; Umur benih; Kerapatan tanaman; Pupuk nitrogen

Abstract

Success of shallot cultivation by using true shallot seed (TSS) on suboptimal land is dependent upon the planting method of seedling, among others seedling age, plant density, and N fertilization. The objective of this experiment was to find out the proper seedling age, plant density and N dosage for producing shallot bulb from TSS. The field experiment was conducted in lowland of Subang West Java (100 m asl.) with Yellow Red Latosol soil type, from July to October 2013. A randomized block design, with three replications and three treatment factor was used in this experiment. The first factor was seedling ages (4, 5, and 6 weeks after sowing), the second factors was plant densities (150 and 100 plants/m2), and the third factor was N fertilizer dosages (150, 225, and 300 kg N/ha). The results showed that the plant growth (plant height and leaf number) from TSS was affected by seedling ages, but it was not affected by plant densities and N dosages. The highest plant height and the highest leaf number was from seedling age of 6 weeks after sowing. The fresh bulb weight per plant was not influenced by seedling ages, plant densities, and N dosages. But, the effect of plant densities was significantly different on fresh bulb weight per plot. The plant density of 150 plants/m2 gave the higher fresh bulb weight than the plant density of 100 plants/m2. The escape dry bulb weight per plant and per plot and also losses of bulb weight were siginficantly affected by the interaction between seedling ages and plant densities. The highest escape dry bulb weight per plant (11.417g/plant) and per plot (2.433 kg/2.4 m2), and the lowest lose weight of bulb (33.63) was obtained by the seedling age of 6 weeks after sowing and plant density of 150 plants/m2. The combination treatment of 6 weeks seedling age + 150 plants/m2 + 225 kg N/ha gave the highest fresh bulb yield (4.195 kg/2.4 m2) and the highest escape dry bulb yield (2.80 kg/2.4 m2). The application of shallot seedling from TSS can be used as alternative technology in shallot production.


Keywords


Allium ascalonicum; True shallot seed; Seedling age; Plant density; Nitrogen fertilizer

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v27n1.2017.p35-44

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