Toleransi Tanaman Kentang (Solanum tuberosum) Terhadap Suhu Tinggi Berdasarkan Kemampuan Berproduksi di Dataran Medium [Heat Stress Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Tolerance Based on Tuber Production in Medium Altitude]

Diny Djuariah, Tri Handayani, Eri Sofiari

Abstract


Produksi dan produktivitas tanaman kentang menjadi salah satu yang terdampak oleh kenaikan suhu akibat pemanasan global. Untuk itu, diperlukan upaya adaptasi budidaya dengan penggunaan kultivar yang toleran terhadap suhu tinggi. Penelitian untuk melihat toleransi tanaman kentang terhadap suhu tinggi telah dilakukan di dataran medium Majalengka (550 m dpl), pada bulan September sampai November 2014. Sepuluh klon, yaitu Klon 1 (397077.16), Klon 2 (397073.7), Klon 3 (392781.1), Klon 4 (391846.5), Klon 5 (395195.7), Klon 6 (394613.139), Granola, Atlantik, Merbabu-17 dan Tenggo,  ditanam menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok, 3 kali ulangan, dengan sistem doble row. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan Klon 5 toleran  terhadap suhu tinggi di dataran medium Majalengka dan mampu berproduksi dengan baik, ditunjukkan dengan rerata produksi ubi yang mencapai 430 gram per tanaman, rerata jumlah ubi 8,70 ubi per tanaman dan perkiraan hasil yang mencapai 19,37 ton per hektar. Klon 5 ini memiliki keunikan dibandingkan klon-klon lainnya pada karakter batang yang berwarna hijau keunguan, ubi berbentuk oval memanjang dengan kulit dan daging yang berwarna putih. Berdasarkan keunggulan yang dimiliki oleh Klon 5 di pengujian ini, maka Klon 5 dapat direkomendasikan sebagai klon unggul di dataran medium dan dapat dimanfaatkan dalam program pemuliaan tanaman kentang untuk tujuan ketahanan terhadap suhu tinggi.

Keywords

Solanum tuberosum; Kemampuan berumbi; Suhu tinggi 

Abstract

Production and productivity of potato plants to be one affected by temperature rising due to global warming. Therefore, adaptation of cultivation with using of heat tolerant cultivars is required. Research for testing the potato crop tolerance to high temperatures based on tuber production has been done in medium altitude Majalengka (550 m asl.), from September to November 2014. Ten clones, i.e. clone 1 (397077.16), clone 2 (397073.7), clone 3 (392781.1), clone 4 (391846.5), clone 5 (395195.7), clone 6 (394613.139), Granola, Atlantik, Merbabu-17, and Tenggo were planted using a randomized block design, three replications, with the double row systems. The results showed that clone 5 was tolerant to high temperatures in medium altitude Majalengka and produce well, as indicated by the average potato production reached 430 g per plant, average of tuber number 8.70 per plant and potential yield reached 19.37 tons per hectare. In addition, clone 5 was unique compared to other clones in color stem character i.e. purplish green, and tuber characters i.e. elongated oval shaped with the white skin and flesh. Based on its superiority in this research, then clone 5 can be recommended as superior clone in medium altitude and can be used in a breeding program high temperature tolerance.

 


Keywords


Solanum tuberosum; Tuberization; Heat stress

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v27n1.2017.p1-10

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