Kemampuan Regenerasi Kalus Segmen Akar pada Beberapa Klon Bawang Putih Lokal Secara In Vitro

Friyanti Nirmala Devy, Hardiyanto Hardiyanto

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Regenerasi tanaman bawang putih dapat dilakukan menggunakan kalus sebagai bahan. Namun metode
ini dapat juga digunakan untuk perbanyakan, terutama pada produksi tanaman bebas virus. Tujuan penelitian ialah
memperoleh komposisi media yang sesuai untuk pertumbuhan kalus dan regenerasi beberapa klon bawang putih.
Penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium Kultur Jaringan Balai Penelitian Tanaman Jeruk dan Buah Subtropika mulai
Maret 2005 sampai dengan Agustus 2006. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah acak lengkap faktorial dengan 2
perlakuan dan 6 ulangan. Induksi kalus dilakukan pada segmen apikal akar bawang putih yang ditanam secara in
vitro. Persentase jumlah eksplan yang berkalus cukup tinggi, berkisar antara 70-100% pada media MS+0,2 g/l CH +
1 ppm 2.4 D maupun media MS + 1 ppm 2.4 D + 0,1 ppm IAA. Meskipun demikian, hanya 2 klon yang memberikan
respons pertumbuhan dan regenerasi kalus yang lebih baik dibandingkan klon lainnya, yaitu Lumbu Kuning dan
Tawangmangu. Pada fase regenerasi menggunakan media MS + 1 ppm kinetin dan MS + 1 ppm IAA + 10 ppm 2-ip,
kalus embrionik dari 2 klon tersebut menghasilkan persentase akar yang paling tinggi, masing-masing sebesar 60
dan 70% dengan kisaran jumlah akar/eksplan mencapai 2-6 buah. Jumlah planlet berkisar antara 5-10 buah. Pada
fase perkembangan selanjutnya umbi mikro terbentuk sempurna.

ABSTRACT. Devy, N.F. and Hardiyanto. 2009. Regeneration Capacity of Callus-derived from Root Segments
of Several Local Garlic Clones. The regeneration of garlic using callus as explants is usually used for breeding
program such as genetic transformation activities. However, this method can also be used as propagation method,
especially for virus-free planting maerials. The experiment was carried out at Tissue Culture Laboratory, Indonesian
Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Research Institute from March 2005 to August 2006. The experiment was arranged in
a factorial randomized complete design with 2 treatments and 6 replications. The callus induction was derived from
garlic apical root segment via in vitro. The percentage of total explants that produce callus was very high (70-100%)
on both medium MS+0.2 g/l CH + 1 ppm 2,4 D and MS + 1 ppm 2, 4 D + 0.1 ppm IAA. Nevertheless, it was only
2 clones that gave better callus growth and regeneration responses than others, these were Lumbu Kuning and
Tawangmangu. On the subculture medium (MS + 1 ppm kinetin and MS + 1 ppm IAA + 10 ppm 2-ip), the percentage
of rooted embryogenic callus of both Lumbu Kuning and Tawangmangu were also high, i.e. 60 and 70% respectively
with 2-6 roots/explant. Shoots grew as a mass, with total shoots number of 5-10 per a mass. Normal micro bulblets
were produced in the next development phase


Keywords


Allium sativum; In vitro culture; Root callus; Micro bulblets

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v19n1.2009.p%25p

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