Penyakit Layu Fusarium Pada Tanaman Pisang di Provinsi NAD: Sebaran dan Identifikasi Isolat Berdasarkan Analisis Vegetative Compatibility Group

Edison -, Riska -, Catur Hermanto

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Penyakit layu yang disebabkan oleh cendawan Fusarium  oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) merupakan penyakit paling berbahaya pada tanaman pisang. Untuk mendapatkan teknik pengendalian yang tepat, maka informasi tentang distribusi dan karakter biologi patogen tersebut perlu diketahui. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui distribusi penyakit layu Fusarium di Provinsi Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (NAD) dan varietas pisang yang diserangnya serta mengidentifikasi isolat  Foc berdasarkan analisis vegetative compatibility group (VCG). Survei dan pengumpulan sampel tanaman pisang terserang penyakit dilakukan pada bulan Januari 2007 dan Juli 2008. Isolasi dan pemurnian isolat dilakukan di Laboratorium Hama dan Penyakit Tanaman, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Buah (Balitbu) Tropika Solok pada bulan Februari 2007 dan Agustus 2008. Analisis VCG dilakukan di Departement of Primary Industry, Plant Pathology Section, Indooroopilli Australia dan Laboratorium Hama dan Penyakit Tanaman Balai Penelitian Tanaman Buah Tropika sejak bulan Juli 2007 sampai bulan Juli 2009. Tester VCG berjumlah 17 nomor yang berasal dari Department of Primary Industry, Plant Pathology Section, Indooroopilli Australia. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penyakit layu Fusarium ditemukan di semua lokasi pengamatan di Provinsi NAD pada empat varietas pisang, yaitu Barangan (AAA), Raja (AAB), Kepok (ABB/BBB), dan Siem (ABB). Dari 50 isolat Foc yang dikoleksi terkelompok ke dalam dua VCG, 37 isolat (74%) termasuk dalam VCG 01213/16 (Tropical Race 4), ditemukan pada tiga varietas (Barangan, Kepok, dan Raja), sembilan isolat masuk VCG 01218 (Ras 1) ditemukan hanya pada varietas Siem, sedangkan VCG empat isolat yang menyerang pisang varietas Siem belum ditemukan. Foc VCGs 01213/16 (TR4) paling dominan ditemukan di Provinsi NAD, baik dari jumlah, sebaran lokasi, maupun ragam varietas yang diserangnya. Data ini menginformasikan bahwa pengembangan tanaman pisang di Provinsi NAD harus dilakukan secara selektif serta mempertimbangkan langkah-langkah preventif dan pengendalian yang tepat.

ABSTRACT. Jumjunidang, Edison, Riska, and Hermanto, C 2012. Fusarium Wilt Disease on Banana in NAD Province: Distribution and Identification of Isolates through Vegetative Compatibility Group Analysis. Wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is the most dangerous pathogen on banana. Knowledge of the distribution and biological characters of the pathogen is very important to arrange an effective control technique. The objectives of this study were to reveal distribution of Fusarium wilt disease in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (NAD) Province and infected banana varieties as well as to identify of Foc isolates with vegetative compatibility group (VCG) analysis Survey and collection of samples of infected banana plants in NAD Province were carried out in January 2007 and July 2008. Isolation and purification of the isolates with single spore techniques were done at Plant Protection Laboratory of Indonesian Tropical Fruit Research Institute (ITFRI), Solok in February 2007 and August 2008. Vegetative compatibility group analysis was performed at Department of Primary Industry, Plant Pathology Section, Indooroopilli Australia and Plant Protection Laboratory of ITFRI from July 2007 to July 2009. Seventeen VCG testers were originated from Department of Primary Industry, Plant Pathology Section, Indooroopilli Australia. The results showed that Fusarium wilt disease was found in all surveyed locations in NAD Province on four banana varieties, i.e. Barangan (AAA), Raja (AAB), Kepok (ABB/BBB), and Siem (ABB). Fifty isolates of the pathogen Foc have been collected and grouped into two VCGs, 37 isolates (74%) were grouped into VCG 01213/16 (Tropical Race 4) attacking three varieties (Barangan, Kepok, and Raja), nine isolates were clustered into VCG 01218 (Race 1) attacking Siem variety only, and the other four isolates from Siem variety had not been identified yet.  Foc VCG 01213/16 (TR4) was very dominant in NAD Province, in terms of numbers, location, and distribution of attacked varieties. These findings inform that the development of banana plants in the NAD province should be done selectively and consider both preventive measures and appropriate controls.

Keywords


Penyakit layu; Distribusi; Vegetative compatibility group; Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense; NAD

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v22n2.2012.p165-172

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