Identifikasi Patogen Penyebab Busuk Pangkal Batang pada Tanaman Jeruk di Tanah Karo

A E Marpaung, Frit H Silalahi, EIY Purba

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Pertanaman jeruk saat ini, di Kabupaten Karo, memperlihatkan produktivitas rendah dan umur tanaman
yang pendek. Hal tersebut disebabkan oleh serangan Phytophthora spp. yang merupakan patogen penyebab penyakit
busuk pangkal batang pada tanaman jeruk. Penelitian bertujuan mengidentifikasi Phytophthora spp., patogen penyebab
penyakit busuk pangkal batang pada tanaman jeruk. Penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium Penyakit, Kebun Percobaan
Tanaman Buah Berastagi dalam bulan Januari-Februari 2007. Daerah pengambilan sampel ialah di Desa Sumbul
Kecamatan Kabanjahe, dan Desa Barusjahe Kecamatan Barusjahe. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa jamur
Phytophthora palmivora, P. citrophthora, dan P. parasitica ditemukan di Desa Sumbul. Jamur P. citrophthora dan
P. parasitica juga diperoleh di Desa Barusjahe. Sporangia dan misellium P. palmivora di Desa Sumbul berwarna
merah jambu dan putih, P. citrophthora berwarna putih dan hijau kehitaman, serta P. parasitica berwarna putih
dan kuning muda, sedangkan di Desa Barusjahe P. citrophthora berwarna putih dan merah jambu dan P. parasitica
berwarna putih. Ukuran (panjang x lebar) sporangia P. palmivora (33-45) x (30-50) μm, P. citrophthora di Desa
Sumbul (40-50) x (34-50) μm, dan di Desa Barusjahe (30-45) x (30-45) μm, P. parasitica di Desa Sumbul (33-35) x
(29-30) μm, dan di Desa Barusjahe (30-40) x (28-30) μm. Ukuran sporangiofor P. palmivora pada umumnya sebesar
6,25-250 μm, panjang sporangiofor P. citrophthora di Desa Sumbul antara 25-68,75 μm dan di Desa Barusjahe
12,5-100 μm, sedangkan panjang sporangiofor P. parasitica di Desa Sumbul 43,75-162,5 μm dan di Desa Barusjahe
6,25-150 μm. Spesies phytophthora yang paling banyak ditemukan di Desa Sumbul adalah P. palmivora, sedangkan
di daerah Barusjahe adalah P. citrophthora. Hasil identifikasi yang diperoleh dari penelitian ini akan bermanfaat
dalam menentukan cara pengendalian Phytophthora spp. pada tanaman jeruk.

ABSTRACT. Marpaung, A.E., F.H. Silalahi, and E.I.Y. Purba. 2010. Identification of the Causal Agent of
Brown Rot Gummosis on Citrus in Karo Region. Citrus cultivation in Karo region has exhibited low yielding
and short plant lifetime. This condition was caused by the infection of Phytophthora spp., the causal agent of brown
rot gummosis on citrus. The objectives of the research was to identify the occurence of Phytophthora spp. on citrus
plants. The research was conducted in Berastagi Fruits Plant Research Farm, from January to February 2007. The
samples were collected from Kabanjahe District at the viilage of Sumbul and Barusjahe. The results indicated, that
Phytophthora palmivora, P. citrophthora, and P. parasitica were obtained from Sumbul village, while P. citrophthora
and P. parasitica were also found in Barusjahe village. The color of sporangia and misellium of P. palmivora originated
from Sumbul Village was white, P. citrophthora was white and dark green, and P. parasitica were pink and yellow,
meanwhile the color of at P. citrophthora obtained from Barusjahe village were white and pink and P. parasitica was
white. The size of sporangia P. palmivora was (33-45) x (30-50) μm, P. citrophthora at Sumbul Village was (40-50)
x (34-50) μm, and from Barusjahe Village was (30-45) x (30-45) μm, P. parasitica at Sumbul Village was (33-35)
x (29-30) μm and Barusjahe Village was (30-40) x (28-30) μm. The general length of sporangiofor P. palmivora
was 6.25-250 μm. The length of sporangiofor P. citrophthora at Sumbul Village was 25-68.75 μm and at Barusjahe
Village was 12.5-100 μm, even though P. parasitica at Sumbul Village was 43.75-162.5 μm and Barusjahe Village was
6.25-150 μm. The most species of phytophthora found at Sumbul Village was P. palmivora and at Barusjahe Village
was P. citrophthora. The result of the identification wil beneficial for the development of easier control measures of
Phytophthora spp. disease on citrus.


Keywords


Citrus; Citrus sinensis; Phytophthora spp.; Identification



DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v20n3.2010.p%25p

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