Formulasi Biopestisida Berbahan Aktif Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, dan Corynebacterium sp. Nonpatogenik untuk Mengendalikan Penyakit Karat pada Krisan

Hanudin Hanudin, Wakiah Nuryani, Evi Silvia, Ika Djatnika, Budi Marwoto

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Karat putih yang disebabkan oleh Puccinia horiana merupakan salah satu penyakit pada krisan yang
dapat menimbulkan kehilangan hasil sampai 100% . Selama ini untuk mengendalikan patogen tersebut, petani sering
menggunakan pestisida kimiawi. Hal tersebut sangat mengkhawatirkan mengingat penggunaan fungisida sintetik
secara berlebihan dapat mencemari lingkungan yang membahayakan bagi kehidupan makhluk hidup. Oleh karena
itu, cara pengendalian alternatif yang efektif dan aman bagi lingkungan diperlukan untuk mengendalikan penyakit
karat putih pada krisan. Salah satu alternatif cara pengendalian penyakit karat yaitu dengan mengaplikasikan
biopestisida yang ramah lingkungan. Penelitian dilakukan di laboratorium, rumah kaca, dan rumah plastik Kebun
Percobaan Balai Penelitian Tanaman Hias (1.100 m dpl), pada bulan April 2009 sampai Februari 2010. Tiga spesies
bakteri antagonis sebagai bahan aktif biopestisida (Bacillus subtilis Cs 1a, Corynebacterium sp.1, dan Pseudomonas
flurescens 3 Sm) dan bahan pembawa (campuran antara ekstrak kascing, molase, gula pasir, dan atau kentang),
masing-masing diformulasi dalam 12 jenis formula biopestisida cair. Formulasi biopestisida difermentasikan selama
3 minggu dalam keadaan aerobik menggunakan biofermentor. Viabilitas bahan aktif dalam bahan pembawa diuji
setiap bulan, yaitu pada periode sebelum dan sesudah fermentasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa populasi bahan
aktif setelah difermentasi selama 3 minggu selalu meningkat, populasi bahan aktif sebelum fermentasi sejumlah 105
cfu/ml meningkat menjadi 106-7 cfu/ml. Dua bulan setelah fermentasi, populasi bahan aktif biopestisida masih tetap
tinggi yaitu berkisar antara 106-11 cfu/ml. Perlakuan ekstrak kascing + gula pasir + B. subtilis + P. fluorescens +
Corynebacterium pada tingkat konsentrasi 0,3% merupakan perlakuan terbaik. Disamping dapat menekan intensitas
serangan P. horiana (38,49%), formulasi biopestisida tersebut juga dapat menaikkan hasil panen bunga krisan layak
jual sebanyak 14,58%.

ABSTRACT. Hanudin, W. Nuryani, E. Silvia, I. Djatnika, and B. Marwoto. 2010. Formulation of Biopesticide
Containing Bacilllus subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Corynebacterium sp. for Controlling White
Rust Disease on Chrysanthemum. White rust caused by Puccinia horiana is one of the contagious diseases of
chrysanthemum that is able to cause yield losses up to 100%. Chemical synthetic fungicides have been used to
control the disease. Because of harmful effects of the synthetic fungicides, the other alternative measure to control
the disease have to be developed in order to support the sustainable farming system. One of the recommended control
measures is the application of biopesticide which is environmentaly friendly. The experiments were conducted in
the laboratory, glasshouse, and plastichouse of Indonesia Ornamental Crops Research Institute (1,100 m asl), from
April 2009–February 2010. Three candidates of biocontrol agents, i.e. B. subtilis Cs 1a, Corynebacterium sp.1, and
P. fluorescens 3 Sm, were formulated with organic basal medium made from fermented worm manure, molasses,
sugar, and or potatoes extracts. Twelve formulations were tested for their effectiveness to control the disease in the
field. The viability of the biocontrol agents in the formulations was monthly tested before and after fermentation
process during storage. Population of the biocontrol agents, after fermentation for 3 weeks was increased from 105
to 106-7 cfu/ml. Two months after fermentation the population of the biocontrol agents was still high (106-11 cfu/ml).
The results showed that the formulation of vermicompost + sugar + B. subtilis + P. fluorescens + Corynebacterium
at the concentration level of 0.3%, was proven to be the best treatment. The treatment was effective to supress white
rust up to 38.49%, and could also increase the yield of marketable chrysanthemum flowers up to 14.58%.


Keywords


Chrysanthemum; Dendranthema grandiflora; Bacillus subtilis; Pseudomonas fluorescens; Corynebacterium sp.; Puccinia horiana; Biopesticide; White rust disease.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v20n3.2010.p%25p

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