Pengaruh Teknik Penyerbukan Terhadap Pembentukan Buah Naga (Hylocereus polyrizhus) [The Effect of Pollination Technique to Fruit Development of Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus polyrizhus)]

Ni Luh Putu Indriyani, nFN Hardiyanto

Abstract


Bunga tanaman buah naga berukuran besar dan merupakan bunga hermaprodit yang mekar pada malam hari. Penyerbukan silang pada buah naga dapat terjadi dengan bantuan angin, serangga polinator maupun manusia. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh teknik penyerbukan bunga betina terhadap pembuahan buah naga (Hylocereus polyrizhus). Penelitian dilakukan di Kebun Percobaan Aripan, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Tropika pada bulan Agustus sampai September 2014. Perlakuan terdiri atas: (A) penyerbukan secara alami (kontrol), (B) penyerbukan sendiri melalui isolasi bunga dengan kantong kertas minyak, (C) penyerbukan dengan mengisolasi bunga menggunakan kantong kertas minyak saat mekar pada malam hari dibantu dengan memberikan serbuk sari dari bunganya sendiri dan diisolasi kembali, dan (D) penyerbukan bunga yang didahului dengan kastrasi dan isolasi menggunakan kantong kertas minyak serta polinasi pada malam hari dan selanjutnya bunga diisolasi kembali. Setiap perlakuan terdiri atas 37 bunga tanaman buah naga. Analisis data dilakukan menggunakan uji t berpasangan pada taraf 0,05. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa teknik penyerbukan yang berbeda pada tanaman buah naga menghasilkan kelas buah yang berbeda. Persentase buah dengan kelas super tertinggi diperoleh pada penyerbukan secara alami (kontrol), meskipun persentase jadi buah paling kecil. Implikasi dari hasil penelitian ini adalah bahwa penyerbukan pada buah naga sebaiknya dilakukan secara alami tanpa menggunakan bantuan manusia.

Keywords

Buah naga; Penyerbukan; Pembuahan; Self compatible

Abstract

The flower size of dragon fruit plants is large and a hermaphroditic nocturnal flowers. Cross pollination of the dragon fruit plants occurs because of the wind, pollinator, and humans. The aim of the research was to determine the effect of pollination technique on  fertilization of dragon fruit flowers (Hylocereus polyrizhus). This research was conducted at Aripan Experimental Field, Indonesian Tropical Fruit Research Institute (ITFRI) from August to September 2014. The treatments consisted of: (A) natural open pollination (control), (B) the flowers were isolated with paper bags and allowed to self pollination, (C) the flowers were isolated with paper bag and hand self pollinated when flowers were blooming in the evening. Furthermore all pollinated flowers were isolated with paper bag again (hand self pollination), and (D) the flowers were castrated and emasculated then they were isolated with paper bag. Cross pollination was done with pollen from the other plants. The all pollinated flowers were isolated with paper bag again (hand cross pollination). Each treatment consisted of 37 flowers of dragon fruit plants. Data were analyzed by using paired  t test 0.05. The results showed that different of pollination techniques on dragon fruit plants were produced of different fruit grade. Percentage of superior grade on natural open pollination  higher than the other treatment, even though the open pollination had smallest of percentage of  fruit set. The implication of this research is that the dragon fruit flower pollination may be done naturally without human assistance.


Keywords


dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrizhus), pollination, fruit development

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adnan, L, Osman, A & Abdul Hamid, A 2011, ‘’Antioxidant activity of different extracts of red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) seed’, Int. J. Food Prop, vol. 14, pp. 1171–1181.

Almeida, O, Cata-Sanchez, J & Paolia, A 2013, ‘The systematic significance of floral morpho;ogy, nectaries, and nectar concentration in epiphytic cacti of tribes Hylocereus and Rhipsalideae (Cactaceae)’, Plant.Ecol.Evol.Syst., vol. 15, pp. 255–268.

Anonimous 2014, Budidaya buah naga di Kabupaten Kutai Kartanegara, .

Banuet, A, Gally, R, Arizmendi, M & Casas, A 2007, ‘Pollination biology of hemiepiphytic Cactur Hylocereus undatus in the Tehuacan Valley, Mexico’, J. Arid Environ, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 1–8.

Le Bellec, F, Vaillant, F & Imbert, E 2006, ‘Pitahaya (Hylocereus spp): a new fruit, a market with a future’, Fruit, no. 61, pp. 237–250.

Castellar, M, Obon, J & Fernandez-Lopez, J 2006, ‘The isolation and properties of a concentrated red-purple betacyanin food colourant from optina stricta fruits’, J.Sci.Food Agric, vol. 86, pp. 122–128.

Choo, W & Yong, W 2011, ‘Antioxidant properties of two species of Hylocereus fruits’, Adv.Appl.Sci.Res., vol. 2, pp. 418–425.

Dinh Ha, T & Chung-Ruey, Y 2014, ‘Morphological characteristics and pollination requirement in red pitaya (Hylocereus spp.)’, Int. J. of Boilogical, Veterinary, Agricultural and Food Engineering, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 190–194.

Garcia, J & Chance, E 2008, ‘Physical and physiological changes in low-temperature-stored pitaya fruit (Hylocereus spp.)’, J. of Professional Association for Cactus Development, pp. 108–119.

Gillaspy, G, Ben-David, H, & Gruissem, W 1993, ‘Fruits: A developmental perspective’, The Plant Cell, vol. 5, pp. 1439-1451.

Grimaldo, J, Terrazas, T, Garcia, V & Cruz, M 2007, ‘Morphometric analysis of 21 pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus) genotypes’, J. of Professional Association for Cactus Development, vol. 9, pp. 99–117.

Islam, M, Khan, M, Hoque, M & Rahman, M 2012, ‘Studies on the processing and preservation of dragon fruit (Hylocereus undatus) Jelly’, The Agriculturists, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 29–35.

Kishore, K 2016, ‘Phenological growth stages of dragon fruit (Hylocereus undatus) according to the extended BBCH-scale’, Sci. Horticulturae, vol. 213, pp. 294–302.

Le Bellec, F, Vaillant, F & Imbert, E 2006, ‘Pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus) according to the extended BBCH-Scale’, Sci Horticulturae, vol. 213, pp. 294-302.

Lichtenzvieg, J, Abbo, S, Nerd, A, Tel-Zur, N & Mizrahi, Y 2000, ‘Cytology and Mating System in t Hylocereus and Selenicereushe climbing Cacti’, Am. J. Bot., vol. 87, no. 7, pp. 1058–1065.

Lim, H, Tan, C, Bakar, J & Ng, S 2012, ‘Effects of different wall materials on the physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of spray-dried microencapsulated red-fleshed pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) seed oil’, Food Bioprocess Technol., vol. 5, pp. 1220–1227.

Merten, S 2003, ‘A review of Hylocereus production in the United States’, J. of Professional Association for Cactus Development, vol. 5, pp. 98–105.

Mizrahi, Y, Nerd, A & Nobel, P 1997, ‘Cacti as Crops’, Hortic. Rev., vol. 18, pp. 291–320.

Nerd, A & Mizrahi, Y 1997, ‘Reproductive biology of cactus fruit crops’, Hortic. Rev., vol. 18, pp. 321–346.

Ortiz-Hernandez, Y & Carrilo-Salazar, J 2012, ‘Pitahay Hylocereus spp.’, Communicata Scientiae, vol. 3, pp. 220–237.

Pusphakumara, D, Gunasena, H & Kariyawasam, M 2006, ‘Flowering and fruiting phenology, pollination agents and breeding system in Hylocereus spp. (dragon fruit)’, in Proceedings oj the Peradeniya University Research Sessions, p. 15.

Tel-Zur, N, Abbo, S, Bar-Zvi, D & Mizrahi, Y 2004, ‘Genetic Relationships among Hylocereusa and selenicereus vine cacti (Cactaceae): Evidence from hybridization and cytological studies’, Ann. Bot., no. 94, pp. 537–534.

Tel-Zur, N, Mizrahi, Y, Cisneros, A, Mouyal, J, Schneider, B & Doyle, J 2011, ‘Phenotypic and Genomic Caharacterization of a Vine Cactus Collection (Cactaceae)’, Genet. Resour. Crop Evol., vol. 58, pp. 1075–1085.

Weiss, J, Nerd, A & Mizrahi, Y 1994, ‘Flowering behavior and pollination requirements in climbing cacti with crop fruit potential’, Hort. Sci., no. 29, pp. 1487–1492.

Wybraniec, S, Nowak-Wydra, B, Mitka, K, Kowalski, P & Mizrahi, Y 2007, ‘Minor betalains in fruits of Hylocereus species’, Phytochemistry, vol. 68, pp. 251–259.

Yusof, Y, Mohd Salleh, F, Chin, N & Talib, R 2012, ‘The drying and tableting of pitaya powder’, J. Food Process Eng., vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 763–771.

Zhuang, Y, Zhang, Y & Sun, L 2012, ‘Characteristics of fibrerich powder and antioxidant-activity of pitaya (Hylocereus undatus) peels’, Int. J. Food. Sci. Technol, vol. 47, pp. 1279–1285.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v28n2.2018.p183-190

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.
';



Copyright (c) 2018

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 


Jurnal Hortikultura (J.Hort) has been indexed :

         

===================================================================================================================

 Creative Commons License
Junal Hortikultura is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at http://ejurnal.litbang.pertanian.go.id/index.php/jhort
Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at www.litbang.pertanian.go.id.

Indonesian Center for Horticulture Research and Development

Jl. Tentara Pelajar No. 3C Kampus Penelitian Pertanian Cimanggu Bogor 16124, Indonesia
Telp.  +62 251-8372096, 7565366, (Ext. 324) (Hunting System)
Faks.  +62 251-8387651, 8575664, 8372096
E-mail: redaksi.jhorti@gmail.com

ISSN: 0853-7097
E-ISSN: 2502-5120

 

free web stats

View My Stats