Penggunaan Rain Shelter dan Biopestisida Atecu Pada Budidaya Cabai di Luar Musim untuk Mengurangi Kehilangan Hasil dan Serangan OPT

Wiwin Setiawati, Ahsol Hasyim, Abdi Hudayya

Abstract


(The Use of Rain Shelter and Biopesticide in off Season Chilli Cultivation to Reduce Yield Losses and Infestation of Pest and Diseases)

Penggunaan rain shelter merupakan solusi untuk mengatasi permasalahan budidaya cabai di luar musim, yaitu kondisi musim hujan berkepanjangan. Peranan sumber daya hayati lokal termasuk tumbuhan sebagai biopestisida (Atecu) perlu ditingkatkan untuk mengatasi masalah mahalnya biaya produksi, namun mampu menekan kehilangan hasil akibat OPT dan menjaga mutu produk. Tujuan penelitian mendapatkan teknologi budidaya cabai off season yang dapat mengurangi kehilangan hasil dan serangan OPT ≥30%. Penelitian dilaksanakan di KP Margahayu Lembang, dari bulan Agustus 2016 sampai dengan bulan Maret 2017. Plot penelitian disusun berdasarkan rancangan acak kelompok (RAK) terdiri atas enam perlakuan dan empat ulangan. Perlakuan yang digunakan adalah bentuk rain shelter (bentuk datar dan melengkung) yang dipasang pada waktu tanam dan musim penghujan dikombinasikan dengan penggunaan Atecu 10 ml/l dan tanpa rain shelter + Atecu 10 ml/l serta teknologi konvensional. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa: (1) pertumbuhan tanaman cabai (tinggi dan lebar kanopi) yang ditanam di bawah rain shelter berbeda nyata masing - masing sebesar (14,23 cm dan 3,17 cm) serta mempunyai jumlah cabang yang lebih banyak (12,5) dibandingkan dengan tanaman cabai yang ditanam di lahan terbuka, (2) kombinasi penggunaan shelter dan Atecu 10 ml/l efektif mengendalikan OPT penting pada tanaman cabai merah dengan tingkat efikasi berkisar antara 33,56–75,0% serta dapat mengurangi penggunaan pestisida sebesar 50% bila dibandingkan dengan teknologi konvensional, dan (3) bentuk rain shelter yang paling baik adalah bentuk melengkung yang dipasang pada musim penghujan dan mampu meningkatkan hasil panen sebesar 26,32% atau sebesar 20,59 ton/ha. Dari hasil tersebut dapat direkomendasikan bahwa penggunaan rain shelter sebagai salah satu teknologi budidaya cabai off season.

Keywords

Capsicum annuum L; Rain shelter; Biopestisida Atecu; Budidaya di luar musim; Hama dan penyakit

Abstract

The use of rain shelter is solution to solve chilli cultivation problems during rainy season which has long period rainy season. Biological control agent (BCA) included biopesticide (Atecu) also plays important role for solving the problems on chilli cultivation. The aim of the research was to obtain chilli cultivation technology in the off season which is effective to reduce yield losses due to incidence of pests and diseases on chilli ≥30%. The research was conducted in Margahayu Station from August 2016 to March 2017. Randomized block design with six treatments and four replications were used in this. The applications of rain shelter at planting time and rainy season (four treatments) and chilli planting at open field (two treatments) were used. The result showed that: (1) plant height and canopy width grown inside rain shelter were significantly longer (14.23 cm and 3.17 cm), had more branches (12.5) than those grown under open field condition, (2) the combination of rain shelter and biopesticide (Atecu) could reduce the risk of pest and disease, mainly in the rainy season with % of efficacy 33,56 – 75,0% and reduced used of pesticide up to 50% compared with conventional technology, and (3) the highest yields was found at Rain Shelter with curved shape applied at rainy season 20.59 ton/ha (26.32%). According to the results, the use of rain shelter can be recommended as one of technology for chilli cultivation during rainy season.


Keywords


Capsicum annuum L.; Rain Shelter; Biopesticide (Atecu); Off season; Pests and diseases

Full Text:

PDF

References


Afandi, M, Mawarni, L & Syukri 2013, ‘Respon pertumbuhan dan produksi empat varietas kedelai (Glycine max L.) terhadap tingkat naungan, Jurnal Online Agroekoteknologi, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 214–226.

Alemayehu, M & Alemayehu, G 2017, ‘Study on alternative technologies for the production of tomato during the rainy season in sub- humid climate of Bahir Dar’, Ethiopia. Ethiop. J. Sci. & Technol, vol. 10no. 1, pp. 1–16.

Anwaruddin, MJ, Sayekti, AL, Kiloes, AM & Hilman, Y 2015, ‘Dinamika produksi dan voltalitas harga cabai : antisipasi strategi kebijakan’, Pengembangan Inovasi Pertanian, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 33–42.

Aryanti, NA 2011, ‘Mekanisme infeksi virus kuning cabai (Pepper yellow leaf curl virus) dan pengaruhnya terhadap proses fisiologi tanaman cabai’, Prosiding Seminar Nasional Biologi ke VIII, pp. 467–471.

Dewi, NA, Widaryanto, E & Suwasono, YB 2017, ‘Pengaruh naungan pada pertumbuhan dan hasil tiga varietas cabai rawit (Capsicum frutescens L .)’, Jurnal Produksi Tanaman, vol. 5, no. 11, pp. 1755–1761.

Du, F, Deng, W, Yang, M, Wang, H, Mao, R, Shao, J, Fan, J, Chen, Y, Fu, Y, Li, C, He, X, Zhu, Y & Zhu, S 2015, ‘Protecting grapevines from rainfall in rainy conditions reduces disease severity and enhances profitability’, Crop Protection, vol. 67, pp. 261–268.

Gilsha, E & Sudha, B 2015, ‘Growth and yield of chilli as influenced by spacing under greenhouse condition’, Internat, J. Agric. Sci., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 297–300.

Handriawan, A, Respatie, DW & Tohari 2016, ‘Pengaruh intensitas naungan terhadap pertumbuhan dan hasil tiga kultivar kedelai (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) di lahan pasir Pantai Bugel , Kulon Progo’, Vegetalika, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 1-14.

Ibrahim, ND & Adesiyun, AA 2010, ‘Effect of rainfall in the control of onion thrips, Thrips tabaci lindeman (Thysanoptera : Thripidae) in Sokoto’, Nigeria. Agric. Biol. J. N. Am., 2010, vol. 1, no, 3, pp. 377–386.

Kementan 2016, Outlook komoditas pertanian sunn sector hortikultura. Cabai Merah, Pusat Data dan Sistem Informasi Pertanian, Kementrian Pertanian, 71 p.

Khan, MA, Khaliq, A, Subhani, MN & Saleem, MW 2008, ‘Incidence and development of Thrips tabaci and Tetranychus urticae on field grown cotton’, International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 232–234.

Korlina, E, Latifah, E & Andri, KB 2016, ‘Pengaruh naungan plastik dan fungisida berbahan aktif asam fosfit terhadap perkembangan penyakit dan produksi tomat’, J. Hort., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 89–96.

Meng, J, Ning, P, Xu, T & Zhang, Z 2013, ‘Effect of rain-shelter cultivation of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet on the Phenolic profile of berry skins and the incidence of grape diseases’, Molecules, pp. 381–397.

Moekasan, T & Prabaningrum, L 2012, ‘Penggunaan rumah kasa untuk mengatasi serangan organisme pengganggu tumbuhan pada tanaman cabai merah di dataran rendah’, J. Hort., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 65–75.

Nair, R & Barche, S 2014, ‘Protected cultivation of vegetables - present status and future prospects in India’, Indian J. Appl. Res., vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 245–247.

Panwar, NL, Kothari, S & Rathore, NS 2009, ‘Protected cultivation of medicinal plant in composite climate of Indian State Rajasthan’, American-Eurasian J. Agric & Environ - Sci, vol. 5, pp. 633–637.

Rusman, IW, Suniti, NW, Sumiartha, IK, Sudiarta, IP, Wirya, GNAS & Utama, IMS 2018, ‘Pengaruh penggunaan beberapa paket teknologi terhadap perkembangan penyakit layu Fusarium pada tanaman cabai rawit (Capsicum frutescens L.) dan cabai besar (Capsicum annuum L.) di dataran tinggi’, Jurnal Agroteknologi Tropika, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 354–362.

Setiawati 2015, ‘Perbaikan teknologi produksi cabai untuk meningkatkan daya saing dan penanaman di akhir musim kemarau di lahan kering’, Laporan APBN TA. 2015, 71 p.

Setiawati, W, Muharam, A, Susanto, A, Boes, E & Hudayya, A 2018, ‘Penerapan teknologi input luar rendah pada budidaya cabai merah untuk mengurangi penggunaan pupuk dan pestisida sintetik’, J. Hort., vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 113–122.

Setiawati, W, Sutarya, R, Sumiarta, K, Kamandalu, A, Suryawan, IB, Latifah, E & Luther, G 2011, ‘Incidence and severity of pest and diseases on vegetables in relation to climate change (with emphasis on East Java and Bali): In Poerwanto, Susanto, Susila, Khumaida, Sukma, Suketi & Ardhie (eds.), Prosiding Seminar Nasional Perhimpunan Hortikultura Indonesia, Balitsa Lembang 23-24 November 2011, pp. 88–99.

Sharif, IM, Mohammud, CH & Illias, MK 2008, ‘Environmental patterns under rain shelter for strategic environmental control in a tropical greenhouse’, J. Trop. Agric. and Fd. Sc., vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 127–134.

Smith, HA & Giurcana 2014, New insecticides for management of tomato yellow leaf curl, a virus vectored by the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci’, Journal of insect science (Online), vol. 14, article. 183.

Spaldon, S, Samnotra, RK & Chopra, S 2015, ‘Climate resilient technologies to meet the challenges in vegetable production’, Internetional Journal of Current Research and Academic Review, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 28–47.

Subagyo, VNO & Hidayat, P 2014, ‘Neraca kehidupan kutukebul Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera : Aleyrodidae) pada tanaman cabai dan gulma babadotan pada suhu 25oC dan 29oC’, Jurnal Entomologi Indonesia, vol. 11, no. 1, 11–18.

Vermeulen, SJ, Aggarwal, PK, Ainslie, A, Angelone, C, Campbell, BM, Challinor, AJ, Hansen, JW, Ingram, JSI, Jarvis, A, Kristjanson, P, Lau, C, Nelson, GC, Thornton, PK & Wollenberg, E 2011, ‘Options for support to agriculture and food security under climate change’, Environmental Science and Policy, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 136–144.

Waiganjo, MM, Gitonga, LM & Mueke, JM 2008, ‘Effect of weather on thrips population dynamics and its implications on the thrips pest management’, African Journal of Horticultural Science, pp. 82–90.

Wani, KP, Singh, PK, Amin, A, Mushtaq, F & Zahoor Ahmad Dar 2011, ‘Protected cultivation of tomato, capsicum and cucumber under kashmir valley conditions, Asian Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 1, Issue 4, pp. 056–061

Wu, D, Palada, M & Wang, T 2008, ‘Developing an integrated crop management system for managing soil – born deseases in sweet pepper production. American society for Horticultural science (ASHS) Annual Conference’, Rozen Plaza Hotel Orlando, Florida, pp. 21- 24.

Xi Li, Xiao, He, F, Wang, J, Li, Z & Pan, Q 2014, ‘Simple rain-shelter cultivation prolongs accumulation period of anthocyanins in wine grape berries’, Molecules, vol. 19, pp. 14843–14861.

Yadav, R & Chang, N-T 2014, ‘Effects of temperature on the development and population growth of the melon thrips, Thrips palmi, on eggplant, Solanum melongena’, Journal of insect science (Online), vol. 14, article. 78.

Yaseer, S., Adzemi, MA, Nur Farah, H & Sidek, N 2016, ‘Potential and viability of chilli cultivation using fertigation technology in Malaysia’, International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 1114–1119.

Yu, S, Liu, C, Zang, C, Liu, L, Wang, H & Guan, T 2017, ‘Effects of rain-shelter cultivation on the temporal dynamics of grape downy mildew epidemics’, Journal of Phytopatology, vol. 165, no. 5, pp. 331–341.

Zhang, Z-J, You-Jun, Z & Bao-Yun, X 2012, ‘Effects of temperature on development, reproduction and population growth of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)’, Acta Entomologica Sinica, vol. 55, no. 10, pp. 1168–1177.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v28n2.2018.p239-250

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.

Comments on this article

View all comments
';



Copyright (c) 2018 Indonesian Center for Horticulture Research and Development

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 


Jurnal Hortikultura (J.Hort) has been indexed :

         

===================================================================================================================

 Creative Commons License
Junal Hortikultura is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at http://ejurnal.litbang.pertanian.go.id/index.php/jhort
Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at www.litbang.pertanian.go.id.

Indonesian Center for Horticulture Research and Development

Jl. Tentara Pelajar No. 3C Kampus Penelitian Pertanian Cimanggu Bogor 16124, Indonesia
Telp.  +62 251-8372096, 7565366, (Ext. 324) (Hunting System)
Faks.  +62 251-8387651, 8575664, 8372096
E-mail: redaksi.jhorti@gmail.com

ISSN: 0853-7097
E-ISSN: 2502-5120

 

free web stats

View My Stats