Aplikasi Pupuk Organik dan Bakteri Pelarut Fosfat untuk Meningkatkan Pertumbuhan Tanaman Tomat dan Aktivitas Mikroba Tanah

Suliasih Suliasih, S Widawati, Agus Muharam

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Pemanfaatan bahan organik untuk budidaya tomat dewasa ini difokuskan untuk menekan penggunaan
bahan kimia yang berlebihan, sehingga kerusakan lingkungan dapat diminimalkan. Percobaan dilaksanakan di Desa
Cidawu, Cibodas, Cianjur (1.250 m dpl.), sejak Januari sampai Desember 2007. Pupuk organik yang digunakan
yaitu kompos dan kotoran ayam + sekam, sedangkan pupuk hayati yaitu bakteri pelarut fosfat (phosphate
solubilizing bacteria = PSB). Tujuan percobaan adalah mendapatkan inokulan yang efektif untuk meningkatkan
pertumbuhan dan hasil tomat, serta menstimulasi aktivitas mikroba dan enzim fosfatase di dalam tanah. Percobaan
menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok dengan lima perlakuan, yaitu tanpa pemupukan maupun inokulan (K),
pemberian inokulan PSB (P1), pemberian kompos (P2), pemberian kotoran ayam+sekam (P3), dan pemberian
pupuk kimia NPK (P4), masing-masing dengan tiga kali ulangan. Varietas tomat yang digunakan adalah Gondol.
Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa pemberian pupuk organik atau inokulan PSB dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan
tanaman tomat dan hasil buahnya, serta populasi PSB dan aktivitas enzim fosfatase di dalam tanah. Pemberian
inokulan PSB menghasilkan peubah tinggi tanaman tomat tertinggi (108,3 cm) dibandingkan dengan kontrol (72,3
cm), dan meningkatkan hasil buah sebanyak 88,2% dibandingkan dengan kontrol, dan juga lebih tinggi daripada
pemberian pupuk kimia NPK. Peningkatan tertinggi populasi PSB dan aktivitas enzim fosfatase asam serta basa
dalam tanah setelah panen tomat juga diperoleh dari pemberian inokulan PSB dibandingkan dengan perlakuan
lain. Implementasi inokulan PSB dan pupuk organik secara meluas dalam pembudidayaan tomat diharapkan
dapat mendorong peningkatan produksi, produktivitas, dan mutu buah tomat untuk memenuhi kebutuhan pasar.

ABSTRACT. Suliasih, S. Widawati, and A. Muharam. 2010. The Application of Organic Fertilizers and
Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria to Increase the Growth of Tomato and Soil Microbial Activities. The use of
organic matters on tomato cultivation is focused to decrease the utilization of chemical substances for minimizing
environmental degradation. An experiment was conducted at Cidawu Village, Cibodas, Cianjur (1,250 m asl.) to
determine the suitable and effective inoculant to increase the growth of tomato plants, and also to stimulate soil microbial
activities. The tomato variety used was Gondol. The organic fertilizers were compost, chicken dung plus rice husk,
and phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB), as a biofertilizer. A randomized block design with three replications was
utilized in this experiment. The treatments consisted of without organic fertilizers or PSB (control) (K), inoculation
of PSB (P1), application of compost (P2), (4) application of chicken dung plus rice husk (P3), and application of the
chemical fertilizer (NPK) (P4). The results showed that the application of organic fertilizers and PSB increased the
growth of tomato plants and also PSB population, acid, and alkaline phosphatase activities in the soil after harvesting.
The inoculation of PSB resulted in heighest plant height (108.3 cm) compared to control (72.3 cm) and also the
highest tomato yield compared to the control treatment (88.2%), and even it was higher than the yield caused by the
application of the chemical fertilizer. The highest increase of PSB population and the activities of acid and alkaline
phosphatase enzymes in soil after harvesting was also caused by the application of the PSB inoculant compared to the
other treatments. The applications of organic fertilizers and PSB for wide scale cultivation of tomato expectantly play
an important role for increasing production, productivity, and quality of tomato to fulfill market demand for the product.


Keywords


Lycopersicon esculentum; Organic fertilizers; Phosphate solubilizing bacteria; Acid and alkaline phosphatase enzymes

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v20n3.2010.p%25p

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