Efek Aplikasi Fungi Mikoriza Arbuskula dan Pupuk KaliumTerhadap Pertumbuhan dan Produksi Pisang Ketan (Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Potash Fertilizer Application on the Growth and Production of Banana cv. Ketan)

Irwan Muas, nFN Jumjunidang, nFN Hendri, Deni Emilda, Dewi Fatria

Abstract


Aplikasi mikroba inducer dan pemupukan merupakan komponen teknologi yang dapat memengaruhi keberhasilan pengelolaan tanaman pisang. Informasi tentang pemanfaatan mikroba induser dan pemupukan kalium untuk meningkatkan produktivitas tanaman pisang di Indonesia masih sangat terbatas sehingga penelitian mengenai hal tersebut perlu dilakukan. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui efek aplikasi fungi mikoriza arbuskula (FMA) dan pemupukan kalium terhadap pertumbuhan   dan produksi pisang ketan. Penelitian disusun berdasarkan rancangan petak terbagi dan diulang tiga kali. Sebagai petak utama adalah aplikasi FMA (tanpa inokulasi dan diinokulasi FMA), sedangkan anak petak adalah pemberian pupuk kalium (0, 200, 400, dan 600 g K2O/ tanaman/tahun). Pengamatan karakter tanah   dilakukan sebelum dan setelah percobaan, antara lain terhadap  pH,  N total, P , K, Ca, Mg, dan  KTK efektif.   Pengamatan  karakter pertumbuhan tanaman (vegetatif dan generatif) meliputi tinggi  tanaman  , jumlah daun, diameter batang, yang dilakukan   1 bulan sekali, serta saat keluar jantung. Pengamatan terhadap  kandungan hara makro pada daun (N, P, K, Ca, Mg)  dan kolonisasi FMA pada akar pisang  dilaksanakan pada kondisi tanaman akan memasuki fase generatif. Parameter produksi  yang diamati meliputi bobot buah per tandan,  jumlah sisir per tandan dan jumlah buah per tandan. Jumlah tanaman sampel yang diamati adalah sebanyak delapan tanaman dari setiap perlakuan. Hasil penelitianmenunjukkan bahwa tidak terdapat pengaruh interaksi aplikasi FMA dan pupuk kalium terhadap parameter pertumbuhan dan komponen produksi. Aplikasi FMA  memberikan pengaruh terhadap saat keluar jantung dan bobot buah/tandan, tetapi tidak memberikan pengaruh terhadap beberapa parameter produksi seperti saat panen, jumlah sisir serta jumlah buah per sisir.  Pemberian pupuk kalium   dapat meningkatkan tinggi tanaman, diameter batang, mempercepat saat keluar jantung, saat panen dan meningkatkan produksi.. Implikasi dari penelitian ini adalah dalam meningkatkan produksi pisang perlu dilakukan aplikasi FMA dan pemupukan kalium.

Keywords

Pisang;Fungi mikoriza arbuskula; Kalium; Produksi dan kualitas

Abstract

Application of microbial inducer and fertilization is part of technology components that can affect the success of the banana cultivation management. Information about the use of microbial inducers and pottasium fertilizer to increase the productivity of banana plants in Indonesia is still very limited, further reseach is needed. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and potassium fertilization on the growth and production of banana (var. Ketan).   The study is based on split plot design and repeated three times. As main plot was application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (without and with inoculation) while as subplot was different dose of potassium fertilizer (0, 200, 400 and 600 g K2O/plant/year). Observations of soil characteristics were carried out before and after the experiment, including pH, N total, P, K, Ca, Mg, and effective CEC. Observation of plant growth characters (vegetative and generative), including plant height, number of leaves, stem diameter, which is done once a month, and bud appearing. Observation of macro nutrient content in leaves (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) and FMA colonization on banana roots, carried out on plant conditions will enter the generative phase. Production parameters observed included fruit weight per bunch, hand number   and fnger number per bunch. The number of plants observed was 8 plants from each treatment. The results showed that there was no interaction effect between application arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and potassium fertilizers to growth parameters, and production.  Application of FMA accelerated bud appearing and increased the yield of banana (fruit weight/bunch) but it did not give a real impact on some production parameters such as the harvesting time, hand number and finger number per bunch.  Application of potassium fertilizer increasedA plant height, stem diameter, accelerated bud appearing, harvesting time and increased the yield of banana (fruit weight/bunch). The implication of this research is to improve banana production with application FMA and potassium fertilizer.


Keywords


Banana; Fungi mychorrhizae arbuscular; Potassium; Production and quality

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v29n1.2019.p61-68

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