Pengelolaan Fisik, Kimia, dan Biologi Tanah untuk Meningkatkan Kesuburan Lahan dan Hasil Cabai Merah

Nani Sumarni, Rini Rosliani, Ati Srie Duriat

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Kebun Percobaan Balai Penelitian Tanaman Sayuran Lembang (1.250 m
dpl.) dengan jenis tanah Andisol, dari bulan Juni 2004-Januari 2005. Tujuan percobaan adalah mengetahui pengaruh
pemberian zeolit, jenis pupuk kandang, dan dosis NPK terhadap kesuburan tanah dan hasil cabai merah varietas Tanjung
1. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan yaitu acak kelompok faktorial dengan tiga ulangan. Perlakuan terdiri atas
pemberian zeolit (0 dan 500 kg/ha), jenis pupuk kandang (kuda, sapi, dan ayam) masing-masing 20 t/ha, dan dosis NPK
15-15-15 (250, 500, 750, dan 1.000 kg/ha). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tidak ada interaksi antara perlakuan
zeolit, jenis pupuk kandang, dan dosis NPK 15-15-15 terhadap pertumbuhan dan hasil cabai merah. Pemberian zeolit
500 kg/ha tidak berpengaruh terhadap sifat fisik, kimia, dan biologi tanah, begitu pula terhadap pertumbuhan dan
hasil cabai. Jenis pupuk kandang yang berbeda pada tingkat dosis yang sama (20 t/ha) tidak berpengaruh terhadap
pertumbuhan dan hasil cabai. Jenis pupuk kandang yang paling baik untuk pertumbuhan dan hasil cabai merah adalah
pupuk kandang ayam. Pengurangan dosis pupuk NPK 15-15-15 dari 1.000 kg/ha menjadi 250 kg/ha tidak menurunkan
hasil cabai merah secara nyata. Pemberian pupuk kandang perlu diberikan setiap kali bertanam, tetapi pupuk NPK
tidak perlu diberikan secara berlebihan, agar produktivitas lahan dapat dipertahankan.

ABSTRACT. Sumarni, N., R. Rosliani, and A.S. Duriat. 2010. Physical, Chemical, and Biological Soil
Management to Increase Soil Fertility and Hot Pepper Yield. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental
Garden of Indonesian Vegetable Research Institute-Lembang (1,250 m asl.) on Andisol soil type from June 2004 up
to January 2005. The aim of the experiment was to determine the effect of zeolite, stable manure, and NPK fertilizer
applications on soil fertility and hot pepper cv. Tanjung 1 yield. The treatments were set up in a factorial randomized
block design with three replications. The treatments consisted of three factors, viz. (1) zeolite (0 and 500 kg/ha), (2)
kinds of stable manure (horse, cow, and chicken manures) 20 t/ha respectively, and (3) NPK 15-15-15 (250, 500,
750, and 1,000 kg/ha). The results indicated that there were no interaction effects between zeolite, stable manure, and
NPK 15-15-15 on the growth and yield of hot pepper. Application of zeolite 500 kg/ha did not significantly affect the
physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of soil. It also did not affect on the growth and yield of hot pepper.
The physical, chemical, and biological conditions of soil were not affected by the kinds of stable manure. But chicken
manure application gave the highest yield of hot pepper. Decreasing of NPK 15-15-15 dosages from 1,000 to 250 kg/
ha did not significantly affect on the yield of hot pepper. Applying of stable manure (organic fertilizer) and adequate
dosage of NPK fertilizer was necessary for each planting season to maintain the soil productivity


Keywords


Capsicum annuum; Zeolite; Stable manure; NPK; Soil fertility; Yield

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v20n2.2010.p%25p

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