Peningkatan Pertumbuhan dan Regenerasi Eksplan Hasil Kultur Anther Anthurium Melalui Perbaikan Media Kultur

Budi Winarto

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Regenerasi kalus merupakan bagian yang paling sulit dalam kultur anther anthurium (Anthurium
andraeanum), karena respons pembentukan tunas yang lambat. Studi pertumbuhan dan regenerasi eksplan hasil kultur
anther anthurium pada media regenerasi yang berbeda dilakukan di Laboratorium Kultur Jaringan Balai Penelitian
Tanaman Hias dari bulan Januari sampai Desember 2008. Penelitian bertujuan mengetahui respons pertumbuhan
dan regenerasi variasi eksplan hasil kultur anther anthurium pada media regenerasi yang berbeda. Penelitian ini
menggunakan kalus tumbuh lambat, kalus haploid, daun, dan petiol muda tanaman haploid sebagai eksplan. Medium
Winarto (MW) dan Winarto-Rachmawati (MWR) merupakan media dasar yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini.
Penelitian terdiri atas tiga percobaan untuk mempelajari pertumbuhan dan regenerasi, yaitu (1) kalus tumbuh lambat,
(2) kalus haploid pada media regenerasi yang berbeda (MR-1 s/d MR-6), dan (3) daun dan petiol muda dari tanaman
haploid menggunakan medium regenerasi terseleksi. Percobaan pertama dan kedua disusun menggunakan rancangan
acak lengkap (RAL), sementara percobaan ketiga disusun menggunakan RAL pola faktorial masing-masing dengan
empat ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pertumbuhan dan kemampuan regenerasi eksplan hasil kultur
anther anthurium berhasil ditingkatkan melalui perbaikan media kultur. Pertumbuhan kalus terbaik dari eksplan kalus
tumbuh lambat ditemukan pada MR-4, sedang kalus haploid pada MR-1. Jumlah bakal tunas per eksplan mencapai
sekitar 20 bakal tunas, tetapi pembentukan tunas tertinggi yaitu 4,8 tunas per eksplan ditemukan pada MR-6. Daun
muda tanaman haploid no. 400 merupakan jenis eksplan dan tanaman haploid dengan respons pembentukan tunas
tertinggi yang mencapai 6,0 tunas per eksplan dibandingkan eksplan dan tanaman haploid yang lain. Media terseleksi
hasil penelitian dapat diaplikasikan untuk menyelesaikan masalah regenerasi eksplan pada kultur in vitro anthurium
yang lain.

ABSTRACT. Winarto, B. 2010. Increase of Growth and Explants Regeneration Derived from Anther Culture
of Anthurium via the Improvement of Culture Medium. Callus regeneration was an important problem in anther
culture of anthurium due to slow response in shoot regeneration. A study of growth and regeneration of explants
derived from anther culture of anthurium in different regeneration media were conducted at Tissue Culture Laboratory
of Indonesian Ornamental Crops Research Institute from January to December 2008. The objective of the research
was to determine the growth and regeneration of explants on different regeneration media. Slow growth, haploid
callus, young leaf, and petiole of different haploid plants were used in the study, while media of MW and MWR
were two basic media applied in the experiment. There were three experiments in the research i.e. to study the
growth and regeneration of (1) slow growth, (2) haploid callus on different regeneration media, and (3) young leaf
and petiole of different haploid plants on selected regeneration medium. The experiment I and II were arranged with
a completely randomized design (CRD) and the experiment III used factorial CRD with four replications. Results
of the studies indicated that growth and regeneration capacity of explants derived from anther culture of anthurium
were successfully increased via culture medium improvement. The best growth response of slow growth callus was
determined on MR-4, while haploid callus was on MR-1. Initial shoots produced per explant were up to ± 20 initial
shoots, but the highest shoot number up to 4.8 shoots produced per explant was established on MR-6. Young leaves
of haploid plant no. 400 were the appropriate explant and the donor plant in obtaining the highest callus formation,
growth and regeneration with 6.0 shoots per explant. The selected media established in the study can be applied to
overcome explant regeneration problems in in vitro culture of other anthuriums.


Keywords


Growth; Regeneration; Slow growth callus; Haploid callus; Haploid plant; Anther culture of anthurium

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v20n4.2010.p%25p

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