Formula Media Kultur Endosperm Jeruk Hasil Persilangan Antarklon Siem dengan Keprok dan Jeruk Besar

Sunyoto Sunyoto, Sudarmadi Poernomo, Makful Makful

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Pembentukan hibrida triploid renyah tanpa biji pada tanaman jeruk tipe keprok dapat dilakukan melalui
kultur endosperm. Komposisi media yang tepat pada setiap tahapan kultur endosperm sangat menentukan keberhasilan
pembentukan hibrida tersebut. Komposisi media induksi kalus sampai regenerasi jaringan endosperm jeruk belum
banyak diketahui. Penelitian bertujuan memperoleh formula media in vitro terbaik untuk pertumbuhan dan regenerasi
kalus endosperm jeruk hasil persilangan antarklon siem dengan keprok dan jeruk besar. Tanaman yang dihasilkan
dari kultur tersebut diharapkan menjadi kandidat varietas jeruk unggul baru yang mempunyai sifat buah tanpa biji
dan berdaging buah renyah. Percobaan dilakukan di Laboratorium Kultur Biak Pemuliaan dan Plasma Nutfah Balai
Penelitian Tanaman Buah Tropika Solok. Penelitian menggunakan analisis diskriptif yang terdiri atas dua tahap
kegiatan yang dilakukan mulai bulan Januari 2005 sampai dengan Januari 2006. Kegiatan pertama ialah produksi
kalus menggunakan media dasar MurashigeTungker (MT) dengan tiga formula. Kegiatan kedua yaitu regenerasi
kalus menggunakan media dasar MT dan Murashige Skoog (MS) dengan enam formula media. Hasil percobaan
menunjukkan bahwa media M3 = MT + 5 ppm BAP + 2 ppm 2,4-D + 500 ppm CH + 0,5 ppm KT + 500 ppm ME,
merupakan formula media inisiasi kalus yang terbaik. Formula media tersebut mampu menginisiasi terbentuknya kalus
lebih cepat, menginduksi kalus yang lebih banyak, kekompakan struktur kalus baik, dan berwarna hijau. Formula
media regenerasi yang terbaik ialah R3 = MT + 0,25 ppm BAP + 2 ppm GA3 + 500 ppm CH + 40 ppm Ads. Media
tersebut mampu mendukung terbentuknya tunas lebih panjang, jumlah daun, jumlah tunas, dan peningkatan jumlah
akar dibandingkan persilangan lainnya. Kalus endosperm hasil persilangan intervarietas siem x keprok Dancy, dan
siem x keprok Cina Konde merupakan kalus terbaik untuk diregenerasikan.

ABSTRACT. Sunyoto, S. Purnomo, and Makful. 2010. Media Formula for Citrus Endosperm Culture of
Hybridization between Clones of Tangerine and Clones of Mandarin and Pummelo. Formation of triploid hybrids
of crunchy seedless mandarin types of citrus can be established through the induction of endosperm culture. The
composition of appropriate media at each stage of endosperm culture determines the success of teh hybrid production.
The media compositions of callus of endosperm induction and its regeneration have not been known yet so far. The
aim of this research was to determine the best formula of in vitro medium to induce and regenerate endosperm callus
of citrus hybrids. Plantlets produced from the culture were expected to be new superior varieties bearing seedless
and crispy fruits. Research was carried out in the Tissue Culture Breeding and Germplasm Laboratory, Indonesian
Tropical Fruits Research Institute from January 2005 to January 2006. Discriptive analysis was used in this research.
The research composed of consecutive activities.The first activity was to produce callus using basic medium MT
(MurashigeTungker) with three medium composition treatments, and the second one, was to regenerate embryoid
callus using MT and MS medium with six medium compositions. The results showed that medium of M3 = MT +
5 ppm BAP + 2 ppm 2.4-D + 500 ppm CH + 0.5 ppm KT + 500 ppm ME was the best formula for callus initiation.
This medium initiated faster growth of callus and gave higher percentage of callus formation that was more compact
in structure, and green in color, than other tested media. The best medium for regeneration of embryoid callus was
R3 = MT + 0.25 ppm BAP + 2 ppm GA3 + 500 ppm CH + 40 ppm Ads. This medium increased the length of shoots,
the number of leaves, shoots, and roots more than the other media. Endosperm calli produced from hybridization
intervarieties of tangerine x mandarin Dancy and tangerine x mandarin Cina Konde were the best calli for regeneration


Keywords


Citrus; Hybridization; Endosperm callus; In vitro culture; Callus regeneration.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v20n4.2010.p%25p

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