Kandungan Flavonoid dan Limonoid pada Berbagai Fase Pertumbuhan Tanaman Jeruk Kalamondin (Citrus mitis Blanco) dan Purut (Citrus hystrix Dc.)

Nirmal Friyanti Devy, Yulianti Yulianti, Andrini Andrini

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Tanaman jeruk mengandung metabolit sekunder flavonoid, karotenoid, dan limonoid yang banyak
terdapat dalam daun, kulit buah, biji, dan pulp. Penelitian bertujuan mengetahui kandungan flavonoid dan limonoid pada
berbagai fase pertumbuhan tanaman jeruk Kalamondin dan Purut serta mendapatkan informasi kandungan limonoid
pada fase embrio dan planlet hasil perbanyakan in vitro melalui embriogenesis somatik. Penelitian dilakukan di Balai
Penelitian Tanaman Jeruk dan Buah Subtropika (Balitjestro) sejak bulan Mei sampai dengan Desember 2009. Ruang
lingkup penelitian terdiri atas (1) identifikasi metabolit sekunder yaitu flavonoid dan limonoid pada berbagai fase
pertumbuhan tanaman jeruk Kalamondin dan Purut dan (2) identifikasi limonoid pada fase embrio dan planlet tanaman
jeruk Kalamondin yang diperbanyak dengan metode embriogenesis somatik secara in vitro. Analisis kandungan
metabolit sekunder dilakukan di Unit Layanan Pengujian, Fakultas Farmasi, Universitas Airlangga. Hasil penelitian
menunjukkan bahwa kandungan flavonoid dan limonoid dapat diproduksi dari berbagai bagian tanaman, seperti pada
pulp, biji, kulit buah, dan daun pada berbagai fase pertumbuhan jeruk Purut dan Kalamondin. Kandungan flavonoid
pada jeruk Purut dan Kalamondin tertinggi terdapat pada buah tua, masing-masing 18,8 ppm. Kandungan limonoid
pada jeruk Purut hanya terdeteksi pada daun pendukung buah tua (1 ppm) dan biji (61 ppm), sedangkan pada jenis
Kalamondin hanya terdeteksi pada biji yaitu sebesar 74 ppm.

ABSTRACT. Devy, N.F., F. Yulianti, and Andrini. 2010. Flavonoid and Limonoid Contents in Every Growth
Phase of Kalamondin (Citrus mitis Blanco) and Purut (Citrus hystrix Dc.). Citrus contains secondary metabolites
such as flavonoid, carotenoid, and limonoid, which can be found in the leaf, peel of fruit, seeds, and pulp. The aims
of this research were to determine flavonoid and limonoid contents in every growth phase of Kalamondin and Purut
and the limonoid contents in embryo and plantlet phases derived from in vitro somatic embryogenesis. The research
was conducted in Indonesian Citrus and Subtropical Fruits Research Institute (ICISFRI) from May to December 2009.
The research consisted of two activities as follows: (1) analyses of flavonoid and limonoid contents in every growth
phase of Kalamondin and Purut and (2) analyses of the limonoid contents in embryos and plantlet proliferated from
somatic embryogenesis culture. Flavonoid and limonoid contents were analyzed at the Assessment Service Unit,
Faculty of Pharmacy, Airlangga University. The results showed that flavonoid and limonoid compounds could be
produced in all parts of plant i.e, such as pulp, seeds, peel of fruit, and leaves from every growth phase of Kalamondin
and Purut. In Purut and Kalamondin, the highest flavonoid content was obtained from ripen fruit, with concentration
18.8 ppm. Liminoid content in Purut was detected only in leaf supporting ripen fruit (1 ppm) and seeds (61 ppm),
and in Kalamondin was only in seeds with concentration 74 ppm.


Keywords


Citrus mitis; Citrus hystrix; Flavonoid; Limonoid; Phytochemical; Kalamondin; Purut.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v20n1.2010.p%25p

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