Potensi Beberapa Fungisida Nabati dalam Mengendalikan Karat Putih (Puccinia horiana Henn.) dan Perbaikan Mutu Krisan

Evi Silvia Yusuf, Waqiah Nuryani, Ika Djatnika, Hanudin -, Suhardi -, Budi Winarto

Abstract


Puccinia horiana Henn. merupakan patogen penting penyebab penyakit karat putih yang menimbulkan kerugian signifikan dalam budidaya krisan, baik bunga potong atau tanaman pot. Aplikasi fungisida sintetik yang sering diandalkan oleh petani dan pengusaha tidak hanya memerlukan biaya yang lebih mahal, namun juga berdampak pada kerusakan lingkungan. Oleh karena itu pemanfaatan fungisida nabati yang lebih murah dan ramah terhadap lingkungan dapat menjadi alternatif pemecahannya. Beberapa fungisida nabati seperti Cees EC, Neem-plus, Cekam EC, dan Sitron-E berbahan aktif minyak atsiri cengkih, nimba, kayu manis, serai wangi, dan asam salisilat telah diproduksi dan dikomersialisasikan oleh Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat. Aplikasi fungisida tersebut diduga berpengaruh positif dalam menekan penyakit karat putih. Penelitian bertujuan untuk memperoleh informasi keefektifan empat produk fungisida nabati tersebut dalam  mengendalikan penyakit karat putih dan meningkatkan kualitas pertumbuhan  krisan. Penelitian dilakukan di Rumah Plastik di Poncokusumo, Malang, Jawa Timur sejak Bulan Januari hingga Desember 2010. Bahan tanaman yang digunakan ialah Dendranthema grandiflora cv. Swarna Kencana. Perlakuan yang diuji ialah 3 ml/l untuk Cees EC, Neem-plus, Cekam EC, dan Sitron-E, serta 1,5 ml/l Amistartop 35 EC sebagai kontrol positif dan air sebagai kontrol negatif. Percobaan disusun menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok dengan enam perlakuan dan empat ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa semua fungisida nabati yang diuji efektif mengendalikan penyakit karat pada krisan. Perlakuan tersebut menurut uji statistik memiliki kemampuan yang sebanding dengan Amistartop. Penurunan intensitas karat putih oleh  perlakuan Cees EC, Neem-plus, Cekam EC, Sitron-E, dan Amistartop berturut-turut  sebesar  49; 37,74; 32,43; 29,78; dan 48,33%.  Aplikasi  Cees EC, Neem-plus, Cekam EC, dan Sitron-E tidak berpengaruh nyata terhadap tinggi tanaman, diameter batang, diameter bunga, dan vaselife bunga. Aplikasi hasil penelitian ini dapat memberi manfaat  untuk petani dan pengusaha dalam menurunkan biaya produksi serta meningkatkan pendapatan petani dan pengusaha karena harga keempat biofungisida murah dan tanpa dampak negatif terhadap kelestarian lingkungan.

 

Controlling white rust disease (Puccinia horiana Henn.) on chrysanthemum with some biofungicides P. horiana Henn. is important pathogen causing white rust disease  that may  lead to a significant lost in chrysanthemum cultivation (both for cut flower and pot plant). Synthetic fungicide commonly applied by farmers are causing not only high production costs, but also endangering the environment.  Confronting to this situation, the use of biofungicide that are considered cheaper and more environmental friendly has become  a relevant and promising alternative. Several biofungicides such as Cees EC, Neem-plus, Cekam EC, and Sitron-E with active ingredient of clove oil, neem, cinnamon, citronella, and salicylic acid have been commersialized by the Indonesian Medical and Spice Crops Research Institute. In this study those  biofungicides were hypothesized to have great potential in control the white rust  disease. The main objective of this study was to obtain information regarding  the efficacy of  four  biofungicides in controlling white rust disease on  chrysanthemum. The  experiment was conducted at Plastichouse in Poncokusumo, Malang, East Java from January to December 2010 by using Dendranthema grandiflora cv. Swarna Kencana as planting materials. The treatments were consisted of 3 ml/l application of Cees EC, Neem-plus, Cekam EC, and Sitron-E 1.5 ml/l application of difenokonazol + azoxistrobin (Amistartop 35 EC) as a positive control  and water as negative control. The experiment was set up  using a randomized block design with six treatments and four replications. The results showed that all tested biofungicides  were quite effective in  controlling white rust disease on chrysanthemum and had similar effectiveness in  reducing  disease intensity compared to  Amistartop. Cees EC, Neem-plus, Cekam EC, Sitron-E, and Amistartop had been able to reduce the white rust disease intensity by 49; 37.74; 32.43; 29.78; and 48.33% respectively. In the meantime, those biofungicides did not show significant effect on plant height, stem diameter, flower diameter, and flower vaselife. The use of biofungicides seems potentially promising to increase farmers income because the price of biofungicides were cheap and maintain environmental sustainability.


Keywords


Dendranthema grandiflora; Puccinia horiana; Control; Biofungicide

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v22n4.2012.p385-391

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