Penampilan Beberapa Klon Bawang Merah dan Hubungannya dengan Intensitas Serangan Organisme Pengganggu Tumbuhan

Sartono Putrasamedja, Wiwin Setiawati, L Lukman, Ahsol Hasyim

Abstract


Perkembangan varietas-varietas bawang merah di suatu daerah ditentukan oleh keserasian dengan lingkungan, potensi hasil, toleransi terhadap serangan organisme pengganggu tumbuhan (OPT), serta umur dan mutu hasil. Penelitian bertujuan untuk menguji penampilan beberapa klon bawang merah dan hubungannya dengan intensitas serangan OPT penting. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Brebes dan Tegal (Jawa Tengah) dari Bulan Juni sampai dengan September 2011. Perlakuan yang diuji ialah 10 klon bawang merah hasil silangan tahun 2004 dan 2005, serta dua varietas bawang merah sebagai pembanding (Bauji dan Bima Brebes). Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan ialah acak kelompok dan diulang tiga kali. Parameter yang diamati ialah pertumbuhan tanaman (tinggi tanaman, jumlah daun, dan jumlah anakan), hasil panen, dan serangan OPT penting. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa klon no. 2005/1 dapat beradaptasi dengan baik di Brebes dan Tegal, mampu menghasilkan produksi tertinggi masing-masing sebesar 9,95 dan 17,50 t/ha, mempunyai diameter umbi terbesar (1,87 dan 2,41 cm), bentuk umbi bulat, dan berwarna merah tua, sedangkan klon no. 2004/11 mempunyai pertumbuhan dan  produktivitas yang tinggi, relatif toleran terhadap serangan Spodoptera exigua, Alternaria porri, dan Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, diameter umbi (1,67 dan 1,96 cm), bentuk umbi bulat,  dan berwarna merah tua, sedangkan klon no. 2004/10 dan no. 2005/19 sangat rentan terhadap serangan hama S. exigua, penyakit A. porri, dan C. gloeosporioides. Klon-klon yang mempunyai tingkat serangan rendah/toleran terhadap OPT merupakan klon harapan bawang merah toleran/tahan OPT. Namun demikian, penggunaan pestisida sesuai dengan konsep pengendalian hama terpadu (PHT) masih tetap diperlukan terutama apabila serangan OPT tersebut mencapai ambang pengendalian yang ditetapkan.

 

The development of shallots varieties in one location depends on the genetic adaptability, yield potential,  tolerance to pest and diseases, harvest date, yield and quality. The aim of study was to evaluate 10 clones and two local clones as check, Bima Brebes and Bauji were conducted in Brebes and Tegal (Central Java) from June to September 2011. The trial were laid out in a completely randomized block design and each treatment was replicated three times. The parameters used for evaluating these clones were plant height, no. of sprout,  no. of leaves, yield and pests and diseases incidence. The results showed that considering overall performance, clone no. 2005/1 gave the highest yield (9.95 and 17.50 t/ha), and diameter of bulb (1.87 and 2.41 cm) in Brebes and Tegal respectively, clone no. 2004/11 produced growth and good yield  and showed tolerance to Spodoptera exigua, Alternaria porri, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, bulb diameter (1.67 and 1.96 cm) with dark red color,  while clone no. 2004/10 and no. 2005/19 were identified as the most susceptible clones to S. exigua, A. porri, and C. gloeosporioides. This suggests that some of shallots clones could be good candidates for the new varieties of shallots. However, the use of pesticides in IPM concept were still needed especially if the incidence of pests and diseases reach the action threshold.


Keywords


Allium ascalonicum; Clone; Spodoptera exigua; Alternaria porri; Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v22n4.2012.p349-359

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