Teknologi Budidaya Tanaman Tomat Melalui Inverted Gardening dan Conventional Gardening Berbasis Pemanfaatan Bakteri Indigenus

S Widawati, IM Sudiana, E Sukara, Agus Muharam

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Inokulan padat Azzofor-wd3 merupakan campuran 16 isolat bakteri indigenus lahan gambut (Rhizobium,  Azotobacter, Azospirillum, dan bakteri pelarut fosfat) masing-masing empat isolat digunakan sebagai pupuk hayati untuk meningkatkan produksi tomat dalam inverted dan conventional gardening. Penelitian bertujuan mengetahui peran potensial inokulan padat Azzofor-wd3 sebagai plant growth promoter dalam kondisi lingkungan ekstrim, khususnya pada lahan gambut. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Pusat Penelitian Biologi, LIPI,  dari Bulan Januari sampai dengan Desember 2011 Penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan 28 perlakuan penambahan media pupuk pada media tanam dengan tiga ulangan atau pot. Media dasar ialah gambut (50%) dan tambahan pupuk hayati (50%). Perlakuan tambahan media pupuk mencakup : (1) gambut sebagai kontrol, (2) sekam kotoran ayam, (3) kompos, (4) pasir halus, (5) kapur, (6) Azzofor-wd3, (7) sekam kotoran ayam + pasir halus, (8) sekam kotoran ayam + kapur, (9) sekam kotoran ayam + Azzofor-wd3, (10) kompos + pasir halus, (11) kompos + kapur, (12) kompos + Azzofor-wd3, (13) pasir halus + kapur, (14) pasir halus + Azzofor-wd3, (15) kapur + Azzofor-wd3, (16) sekam kotoran ayam + kompos + pasir halus, (17) sekam kotoran ayam + kompos + kapur, (18) sekam kotoran ayam + kompos + Azzofor-wd3, (19) sekam kotoran ayam + pasir halus + kapur, (20) sekam kotoran ayam + pasir halus + Azzofor-wd3, (21) sekam kotoran ayam + kapur + Azzofor-wd3, (22) kompos + pasir halus + kapur, (23) kompos + kapur + Azzofor-wd3, (24) pasir halus + kapur + Azzofor-wd3, (25) sekam kotoran ayam + kompos + pasir halus, (26) sekam kotoran ayam + kompos + pasir halus + Azzofor-wd3, (27) kompos + pasir halus + kapur + Azzofor-wd3, dan (28) sekam kotoran ayam + kompos + pasir halus + kapur + Azzofor-wd3. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa produksi tomat tertinggi setelah 3 bulan ialah pada perlakukan media gambut + sekam kotoran ayam + kompos + pasir halus + kapur + Azzofor-wd3 pada inverted dan conventional gardening, masing-masing sebesar 63,9 dan 65,9 g/pot.  Terdapat perbedaan pengaruh perlakukan yang nyata antara inverted dan conventional gardening dalam hal P-tersedia, populasi bakteri, dan aktivitas PME-ase. Namun demikian, tidak ada pengaruh perlakuan yang nyata terhadap produksi tomat antara inverted dan conventional gardening.  Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa Azzofor-wd3 merupakan bakteri pendorong pertumbuhan tanaman yang potensial untuk tanaman tomat yang dibudidayakan pada lahan gambut.  Aplikasi jenis bakteri tersebut sangat bermanfaat dalam  pengayaan tanah gambut untuk pembudidayaan tanaman sayuran.

ABSTRACT. Widawati, S, Sudiana, IM, Sukara, E, and Muharam, A 2012. The Technology of Tomato Plant Cultivation Through Inverted and Conventional Gardening Based on Utilization of Indigenous Bacteria. Azzofor-wd3 is a solid inoculant consisted of 16 peat indigenous bacteria isolates i.e. Rhizobium, Azotobacter, Azospirillum, and PSB four isolates respectively were used as biofertilizers to stimulate tomato production on inverted and conventional gardening. An experiment was conducted at the Research Center for Biology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences from January until December 2011. The research was aimed to determine the potential role of Azzofor-wd3 solid inoculant as a plant growth promoter in extremely environmental conditions. The treatments of growth media mixture were arranged in a completely randomized design with three replications. The based media was peat for 50% of mixture. The treatments were the addition of biofertilizers with the same volume of the based media (50%). The treatments were (1) peat only as the control, (2) chicken dunk, (3) compost, (4) fine sand, (5) lime, (6) Azzofor-wd3 inoculant, (7) chicken dunk + fine sand, (8) chicken dunk + lime, (9) chicken dunk + Azzofor-wd3, (10) compost + fine sand, (11) compost + lime, (12) compost + Azzofor-wd3, (13) fine sand + lime, (14) fine sand + Azzofor-wd3, (15) lime + Azzofor-wd3, (16)  chicken dunk + compost + fine sand, (17) chicken dunk + compost + lime, (18) chicken dunk + compost + Azzofor-wd3, (19) chicken dunk + fine sand + lime, (20) chicken dunk + fine sand + Azzofor-wd3, (21) chicken dunk + lime + Azzofor-wd3, (22) compost + fine sand + lime, (23) compost + lime + Azzofor-wd3, (24) fine sand + lime + Azzofor-wd3, (25) Chicken dunk + compost + fine sand, (26) chicken dunk + compost + fine sand + Azzofor-wd3, (27) compost + fine sand + lime + Azzofor-wd3, and (28) chicken dunk + compost + fine sand + lime + Azzofor-wd3. The results showed that the highest production of  tomato in inverted gardening was 63.9 g/pot and in conventional gardening was 65.9 g/pot produced by the plants grown on peat + chicken dunk + compost + sand + lime + Azzofor wd3 inoculant, 3 months after planting. There was significant difference of available-P, bacterial population, and PME-ase activity in inverted and conventional gardening before and after fertilization, whereas there was no significant difference of  tomato yield between inverted and convensional gardening. It can be concluded that  Azzofor-wd3 is potential as a plant growth promoting bacteria for tomato plants grown in peat soil. The application of the bacteria is very helpful to enrich peat soil for growing  vegetable crops.


Keywords


Tomato; Azzofor-wd3; Inverted gardening; Conventional gardening; Indigenous bacteria; Plant growth promoter

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v22n3.2012.p224-232

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