Ketahanan Aksesi Jeruk Seedles Terhadap Tiga Strain Virus Tristeza Jeruk (Resistance Seedles Accession to Three Strain of Citrus Tristeza Virus)

Mutia Erti Dwiastuti, Sri Widyaningsih

Abstract


Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) merupakan salah satu penyakit yang merugikan secara ekonomi pada jeruk. Penyakit ini telah menyebar merata di pertanaman jeruk seluruh Indonesia. Tiap varietas jeruk mempunyai ketahanan yang berbeda-beda terhadap penyakit ini. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui tingkat ketahanan kandidat jeruk seedless hasil mutasi dengan radiasi sinar Gamma terhadap tiga strain penyakit CTV. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Terpadu dan Rumah Kasa Balai Penelitian Tanaman Jeruk dan Buah Subtropika (Balitjestro) selama 1 tahun. Tahapan yang dilakukan adalah seleksi dan perbanyakan strain CTV, pengujian ketahanan sembilan kandidat mutan dan dua tanaman berasal dari induk, yaitu MT-49, MT-50, MT-52, MT-54, MT-89, MT-92 (mutasi dari tetua K SoE), MT-68 (mutasi dari tetua K Garut), KS 001(hasil silangan), KS 002 (tetua Tai Ayam), MT P2A6 (mutasi dari tetua pamelo Nambangan1), dan MT P1A4 (mutasi dari tetua Pamelo Nambangan 2). Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap masa inkubasi, intensitas penyakit berdasarkan gejala visual dan uji serologi Elisa. Tingkat ketahanan didasarkan pada gejala visual dan hasil pengujian dengan Elisa. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan gejala vein clearing, vein cupping, vein crocking, dan stem pitting ditemukan pada areal pertanaman jeruk. Masa inkubasi CTV pada kandidat mutan dengan inokulasi masing-masing strain bervariasi antara 3–5 minggu. Intensitas penyakit yang timbul akibat inokulasi masing-masing strain bervariasi, demikian juga tingkat ketahanan tanaman. Aksesi varietas yang resisten terhadap strain CTV parah (severe strain) adalah MT P2A6 dan MT P1A4, aksesi toleran terhadap strain CTV parah adalah MT 49, MT 52, MT 54, MT 68, MT 92, KS 002, dan aksesi yang peka terhadap strain CTV parah adalah MT 50, MT 89, dan KS 001.

Keywords

Jeruk; Seedless; Strain; Mutan; Citrus tristeza virus

Abstract

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is one of the economically harmful diseases on citrus. The disease has been spread evenly throughout Indonesia citrus crop. Each citrus varieties have different resistance to this disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the candidate’s level of resistance mutations result seedless oranges against three strains of CTV disease. Research conducted at Laboratory and Screen House, Indonesian Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Research (BALITJESTRO), Tlekung, Batu for 1 year. Stages are carried out exploration, collection, and propagation of strains, resistance testing both nine candidate’s mutation MT-49, MT-50, MT-52, MT-54, MT-89, MT-92 (mutant from K SoE), MT-68 (mutant from K Garut), MT P2A6 (mutant from pamelo Nambangan1), MT P1A4 (mutant from Pamelo Nambangan2) and two types of plant derived from the parent KS 001, KS 002 (elder Tai ayam). Observations made on incubation period, intensity of the disease based on visual symptoms and tested with Elisa. The level of resistance is based on visual symptoms and results of testing with Elisa. The results showed that symptoms of vein clearing, vein cupping, vein crocking, and stem pitting found on citrus planting area. The incubation period of CTV on mutant candidates by inoculation of each strain varied between 3–5 weeks.The intensity of the disease caused by the inoculation of each strain varies, so does the level of plant resistance. Accessions resistant to severe CTV strains (severe strain) is MT MT P2A6 and P1A4, accessions tolerant to severe CTV strains are MT 49, MT 52, MT 54, MT 68, MT 92, 002, and KS-sensitive accession severe CTV strains are MT 50, MT 89, KS 001


Keywords


Jeruk; Seedless; Strain; Mutan; Citrus tristeza virus

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v26n2.2016.p235-244

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