Induksi Resistensi Tanaman Krisan Terhadap Puccinia horiana P. Henn. Dengan Menggunakan Ekstrak Tanaman Elisitor (Resistance Induction of Chrysanthemum Plant to Puccinia horiana P. Henn Using Elicitor Plant Extracts)

nFN Hanudin, Wakiah Nuryani, Budi Marwoto

Abstract


Penyakit karat putih yang disebabkan oleh Puccinia horiana Henn. merupakan salah satu penyebab masalah yang paling penting pada tanaman krisan (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev.). Serangan pada tanaman ini dapat menurunkan nilai komersial bunga krisan. Induksi resistensi merupakan salah satu strategi untuk mengendalikan penyakit ini. Beberapa jenis tanaman elisitor terbukti efektif meningkatkan ketahanan tanaman terhadap serangan berbagai jenis patogen. Tujuan penelitian adalah memperoleh minimal dua spesies ekstrak tanaman elisitor yang efektif menginduksi ketahanan tanaman krisan terhadap P. horiana, dan mendapatkan informasi kandungan asam salisilat pada tanaman krisan yang terbukti tahan terhadap P. horiana akibat perlakuan ekstrak tanaman elisitor. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium dan Rumah Kaca Balai Penelitian Tanaman Hias pada Januari hingga Desember 2013. Tujuh tanaman elisitor yang diuji, yaitu daun tanaman ivy (Hedera helix), batang tanaman wilow (Salix sp.), daun bunga pukul empat (Mirabilis jalapa), daun Phytholacca americana (anti viral), daun kecubung (Datura suaveolens), daun pagoda (Clerodendron japonicum), dan daun lengkuas (Alpinia galanga) yang masing-masing diencerkan dengan perbandingan 1 : 1 w/v (100 g bagian bahan tananam digerus menggunakan mortal sampai halus, kemudian ditambah 100 ml larutan 0,01 M fosfat buffer pH 7,0). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak batang Salix sp. dan daun C. japonicum efektif menginduksi ketahanan tanaman krisan terhadap P. horiana dengan persentase penekanan masing-masing mencapai 80,20 dan 75,46%. Kandungan asam salisilat pada tanaman krisan tahan P. horiana yang diinduksi oleh tanaman elisitor, masing-masing bervariasi antara 1.767,55– 3.767,55 ppm. Pemanfaatan hasil penelitian ini dapat meningkatkan daya saing bunga krisan di pasar internasional melalui aplikasi ekstrak tanaman elisitor sehingga ramah lingkungan dan ekonomis.

Keywords

Dendranthema grandiflora; Efektivitas; Tanaman elisitor; Induksi resistensi; Puccinia horiana

Abstract

White rust disease caused by Puccinia horiana Henn. Is one of the most important problems in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev.) cultivation system. Attacks on these plants can reduce the commercial value of the Chrysanthemum flowers. Induction of resistance is one of reliable strategies for controlling the disease. Some types of plants elicitor are proved to be effective to improve plant resistance to various pathogens. The purpose of this study is to obtain at least two species of plant extracts that its effective to induce plant resistance to P. horiana of chrysanthemum, and obtain information on the content of salicylic acid of resistant plant has been induced by application of plant elicitor extract. The research was conducted in the Laboratory and Greenhouse Indonesian Ornamental Crops Research Institute conducted between January until December 2013. Seven elicitor plants that are leaf ivy (Hedera helix), the plant stem willow (Salix sp.). Leaves flowers at four o’clock (Mirabilis jalapa) , leaves Phytholacca americana (anti-viral), cone-shaped leaves (Datura suaveolens), leaf pagoda (Clerodendron japonicum), and leaves galangal (Alpinia galanga), were tested. Each of which is diluted in the ratio 1: 1 w / v (100 g of the material plants crushed using a mortal until smooth, then add 100 ml of 0.01 M phosphate buffer pH 7.0). The results showed that stem extract of Salix sp. and the leaves extract of C. japonicum were effectively induced plant resistance to P. horiana of chrysanthemum with emphasis percentages respectively reached 80.20 and 75.46%. Salicylic acid content in chrysanthemum effectively induced by elicitor plants, each contained varying between 1,767.55 to 3,767.55 ppm. The used of leave extract of both species can improve resistance plant species.


Keywords


Dendranthema grandiflora; Effectiveness; Elicitor plants; Resistance; Puccinia horiana

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v26n2.2016.p245-256

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