Karakterisasi dan Evaluasi Markisa Asam Hibrid Hasil Persilangan Markisa Asam Ungu dan Merah (Passiflora sp.) (Characterization and Evaluation of Passion Fruit Acid Hybrid from Purple and Red Passion Fruit Acid Crossing)

Agustina Erlinda Marpaung, nFN Karsinah, Bina Br Karo

Abstract


Persilangan merupakan upaya memperbesar keragaman genetik dengan memadukan sifat tetua untuk mendapatkan varietas unggul. Saat ini tanaman markisa ungu merupakan buah yang memiliki nilai ekonomi tinggi, dan sebagai bahan baku untuk pembuatan sirup. Namun, bobot buah markisa ungu tergolong kecil sehingga perlu dilakukan persilangan antara markisa asam ungu dan merah untuk mendapatkan markisa asam hibrid yang lebih unggul. Penelitian bertujuan mengetahui karakter calon varietas markisa asam hasil persilangan markisa asam ungu dan markisa asam merah, dan melihat keunggulannya dibandingkan dengan markisa asam ungu. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Kebun Percobaan Berastagi, Kecamatan Dolat Rayat, Kabupaten Karo, Provinsi Sumatera Utara, dengan ketinggian tempat 1.340 m di atas permukaan laut (dpl.) dan jenis tanah Andisol. Kegiatan dilakukan pada kurun waktu 2008 – 2010 dengan kegiatan meliputi persilangan antara markisa asam ungu dan merah, serta karakterisasi dan evaluasi yang dilakukan pada benih, daun, dan buah dari markisa asam hibrid dan tetuanya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa markisa asam hibrid mempunyai beberapa keunggulan, antara lain bobot buah lebih besar (110–130 g) dibanding markisa asam ungu dan merah (49,52 – 56,08 g dan 79,21 – 120,51 g), sari buah kental, ukuran buah lebih besar, dan sedikit beraroma jambu biji. Kandungan kimia buah (total padatan terlarut/TSS) buah markisa asam hibrid secara umum sama dengan markisa asam ungu, yaitu 16o Brix, sedangkan markisa asam merah nilainya lebih tinggi, yaitu 19o Brix. Total asam markisa asam hibrid lebih tinggi dibanding dengan kedua tetuanya 4,42%, sedangkan vitamin C lebih rendah, 34,65 mg/100 g bahan. Hasil preferensi konsumen terhadap rasa buah markisa asam ungu dan hibrid menunjukkan bahwa para panelis menyukai rasa kedua markisa tersebut, sedangkan untuk aroma, markisa asam ungu lebih disukai dibanding markisa asam hibrid.

Keywords

Passiflora sp.; Markisa asam; Karakterisasi; Evaluasi; Persilangan

Abstract

Crosses are an attempt to enlarge the genetic diversity by combining the properties of elders to obtain superior varieties. The current crop of purple passion fruit is a fruit that has a high economic value, and as a raw material for the manufacture of syrup, purple passion fruit weight relatively small, so that should be a cross between purple and red passion fruit acids to get a greater hybrid passion fruit. The aim of the research was to know the character of passion fruit candidate variety from crosses between purple and red passion fruit, and to know a greater quality compared with purple passion fruit. The research conducted in Berastagi Experimental Garden, District Dolat Rayat, Karo, North Sumatera, with a height of 1,340 m above sea level (asl.) and the type of soil is Andisol. The activities conducted in 2008 – 2010 with activities include crossing between purple and red passion fruit acid, characterization, and evaluation made in the seeds, leaves, and fruit to hybrid passion fruit acid and its parents. The result showed that hybrid passion fruit acid has several advantages, there are fruit weight bigger (110 – 130 g) compared to purple and red passion fruit (49.52 – 56.08 g and 79.21 – 120.51 g), condensed juice, fruit size is larger and slightly scented guava. Chemical ingredients fruit (total dissolved solids/TSS) passion fruit acids are generally the same hybrid with a purple passion fruit acid that is 160o Brix, while the red passion fruit acid value is higher 19o Brix. Total acid hybrid passion fruit acid higher than parent plants 4.42%, while vitamin C is lower 34.65 mg/100 g of material. The result of consumer preference for the taste of purple passion fruit acids and hybrid showed that the panelists liked the taste of the passion fruit, while the aroma, purple passion fruit acid is preferred over sour passion fruit hybrid.


Keywords


Passiflora sp.; Passion fruit acid; Characterization; Evaluation; Crosses

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v26n2.2016.p163-170

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