Penerapan Ambang Pengendalian Organisme Pengganggu Tumbuhan pada Budidaya Bawang Merah dalam Upaya Mengurangi Penggunaan Pestisida

TK Moekasan

Abstract


Organisme pengganggu tumbuhan (OPT) merupakan satu faktor pembatas dalam budidaya bawang merah di dataranrendah. Untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut, petani bawang merah menggunakan pestisida secara intensif. Keadaan tersebutmenyebabkan biaya produksi meningkat dan usahatani bawang merah menjadi tidak efisien. Salah satu upaya untuk mengurangipenggunaan pestisida ialah dengan penerapan ambang pengendalian OPT. Percobaan penerapan ambang pengendalian OPT padabudidaya bawang merah dilakukan di Kecamatan Kersana, Kabupaten Brebes, Jawa Tengah (± 5 m dpl.) pada bulan April sampaidengan Juli 2009. Tujuan penelitian ialah mengetahui pengaruh penerapan ambang pengendalian terhadap pengurangan penggunaanpestisida. Dua macam perlakuan diaplikasikan pada penelitian ini, yaitu (A) penerapan ambang pengendalian OPT (Spodopteraexigua, Liriomyza sp., dan Alternaria porri) dibandingkan dengan (B) pengendalian OPT dengan sistem kalender aplikasi pestisidatiap 3 hari sekali. Percobaan dilakukan dengan metode petak berpasangan dan setiap perlakuan diulang enam kali. Bawang merahvarietas Bima Curut ditanam pada petak perlakuan seluas 37,5 m2. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa penerapan ambangpengendalian dapat mengurangi jumlah penyemprotan insektisida sebesar 43,75% dan fungisida sebesar 87,50%, volume semprotpestisida sebesar 52,83% dengan hasil panen tetap tinggi (36,40 t/ha). Teknologi ambang pengendalian tersebut secara ekonomilayak untuk diadopsi karena dapat meningkatkan pendapatan bersih dan mengurangi biaya penyemprotan dibandingkan denganteknologi pengendalian OPT sistem kalender.

ABSTRACT

Pests and diseases are two of the limiting factors in shallotscultivation in the lowland areas. To overcome pest and disease problems, shallots farmers generally use pesticides intensively. Thesecircumstances led the increase of production costs and the inefficient on shallots cultivation. One effort to reduce using pesticide useis by applying the control threshold of pests and diseases. The experiment of the control threshold of pests and diseases on shallotscultivation was carried out in Kersana Subdistrict, Brebes District, Central Java (± 5 m asl.) in April until July 2009. This experimentaimed to determine the effect of control threshold on reduction of using pesticide. Two kind of treatments were applied, namely(A) the use of control threshold (Spodoptera exigua, Liriomyza sp., and Alternaria porri) compared with (B) with the calendarsystem via application of pesticides every 3 days. The study was conducted using paired comparison method and each treatment wasrepeated six times. Treatment plot size was 37.5 m2. The shallots variety planted was Bima Curut. The result showed that the controlthreshold could reduce insecticide and fungicide application by 43.75 and 87.50% respectively; spraying volume 52.83% with yieldremain high (36.40 t/ha). Implementation of the control threshold, was economically feasible to be adopted because it can increasenet revenues and reduce costs of pesticide compared with the calendar system of pests control, routinely applied every 3 days.


Keywords


Spodoptera exigua; Liriomyza sp.; Alternaria porri; Allium cepa; Control threshold; Pesticide

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v22n1.2012.p47-56

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