Perbanyakan Massal Embrio Kalamondin Melalui Teknologi Somatik Embriogenesis Menggunakan Bioreaktor

Nirmala Frianti Devy, Farida Yulianti, Hardiyanto Hardiyanto

Abstract


Sejauh ini, penelitian perbanyakan somatik embriogenesis baik untuk penyediaan semaian batang bawah maupun varietas komersial jeruk menghasilkan laju multiplikasi yang relatif lambat. Kombinasi antara perbanyakan melalui metode somatik embriogenesis dengan penggunaan bioreaktor, diharapkan mampu meningkatkan laju produksi kalus embrionik menjadi planlet.  Kajian awal dilakukan menggunakan nuselus Kalamondin (Citrus mitis Blanco) sebagai sumber kalus. Kalus yang dihasilkan diinduksi dan diperbanyak menjadi kalus embrionik dan embrio dengan cara dikulturkan pada shaker (100 rpm) serta bulb bioreactor. Tujuan penelitian ini ialah membandingkan produksi embrio Kalamondin melalui teknologi somatik embriogenesis pada kultur cair menggunakan shaker dan bioreaktor. Penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium Kultur Jaringan Balai Penelitian Tanaman Jeruk dan Buah Subtropika, dari September 2008 sampai dengan Desember 2009.  Pada tahapan perbanyakan embrio dengan metode shaker, diperoleh bahwa rerata kemampuan kalus menghasilkan embrio dalam kultur selama 10 minggu ialah 18,12 embrio/g kalus. Dengan kisaran waktu yang sama, total embrio yang dihasilkan 3 g kalus/300 cc media cair di dalam bioreaktor menghasilkan 46 embrio/g kalus atau setara 2,53 kali dibandingkan metode shaker. Embrio yang tumbuh pada bioreaktor dapat berkembang hampir 100% menjadi planlet. Hasil penelitian ini membuktikan bahwa aplikasi bioreaktor untuk tujuan perbanyakan massal embrio Kalamondin memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap laju multiplikasinya.

ABSTRAK

So far, research on somatic embryogenesis for rootstock and citrus commercial varieties has been faced by low multiplication rate of embryos. Combination of somatic embryogenesis method and bioreactor hypothezed can increase multiplication rate of embryos and improve regeneration of embryogenic calli to produce plantlets.  Kalamondin explants were inducted and proliferated to be embryonic calli and embryos using both shaker (100 rpm) and bulb bioreactor. The aimed of this research was to compare the production of Kalamondin embryos through somatic embryogenesis method on liquid media using shaker and bulb bioreactor. Research was conducted at Tissue Culture Laboratory of Indonesian Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Research Institute from September 2008 to December 2009.  Kalamondin nucelus as a callus source was used in this research. Results of the study indicated that the average of embryos production through shaker technique within 10 weeks of culture incubation was 18.12 embryos/g callus, while application of bioreactor imrpoved embryo productivity up to  46 embryos/g calli (3 g/300 cc media). The multiplication rate using the bioreactor increased up to 2.53 fold compare to shaker method. Results of the study give the real evidence that application of biorector for in vitro mass propagation of Kalamondin embryos had high significant effect on embryo multiplication rate.


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v22n1.2012.p1-7

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ISSN: 0853-7097
E-ISSN: 2502-5120

 

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