Kemangkusan Kandidat Biofungisida Berbahan Aktif Bakteri Antagonis terhadap Fusarium oxysporum pada Phalaenopsis (Effectiveness of Biofungicide Candidate with Bacteria Active Ingredient Againts Fusarium oxysporum on Phalaenopsis)

I Djatnika, nFN Hanudin, Wakiah Nuryani

Abstract


Layu fusarium yang disebabkan oleh Fusarium oxysporum pada tanaman anggrek dapat menimbulkan kerusakan tanaman hingga mencapai 40%. Bakteri antagonis B 37 dan B 26 hasil isolasi dari tanaman anggrek efektif mengendalikan penyakit layu fusarium pada tanaman anggrek masing-masing sebesar 65,3 dan 48,9%. Isolat bakteri tersebut belum diidentifikasi, diuji kompatibilitasnya, dan diaplikasikan masih dalam bentuk biakan murni. Tujuan penelitian ini ialah: (a) mengidentifikasi secara biokimia isolat bakteri B 26 dan B 37, (b) mendapatkan formulasi bahan pembawa organik yang kompatibel dengan isolat bakteri B 26 dan atau B 37, serta (c) mengendalikan F. oxysporum pada tanaman anggrek Phalaenopsis dengan menggunakan kedua bakteri tersebut yang sudah dikemas dalam bahan pembawa. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa (a) hasil identifikasi secara biokimia bakteri B 26 dan B 37 ialah Bacillus spp., (b) semua bahan aktif calon biopestisida (Bacillus spp. B 26 dan B 37) kompatibel terhadap bahan pembawa dari bahan alami yang mengandung karbohidrat dan protein minimal, tetapi kurang kompatibel pada media pembawa dari bahan alami yang mengandung karbohidrat dan protein optimal serta air steril, dan (c) perlakuan Bacillus spp. B26 atau B 37 dalam media pembawa yang mengandung karbohidrat dan protein minimal atau disuspensikan dalam air (disuspensikan dalam air setiap akan dilakukan perlakuan) yang diaplikasikan dengan merendam benih selama 1 jam yang kemudian diikuti dengan penyemprotan tanaman setiap 7 hari, efektif mengendalikan penyakit layu fusarium pada anggrek Phalaenopsis.

Keywords

Phalaenopsis; Fusarium oxysporum; Identifikasi; Kemangkusan; Biopestisida

Abstract

Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum on orchid plants caused damage plants up to 40%. Antagonistics bacteria isolate B 37 and B 26 effectively control fusarium wilt on orchids respectively by 65.3 and 48.9%. The isolates has not been yet identified, tested for compatibility and are applied in the form of a pure culture. Purposes of the study were (a) identify bacteria isolates of B 26 and B37 biochemically, (b) obtain isolates of Bacillus spp. B 26 and or B 37 are compatible with the organic carrier, and (c) controlling of F. oxysporum on Phalaenopsis orchid plant by using both the bacteria that have been packaged in a carrier. The results showed that (a) results of biochemical identification, biopesticide active ingredient B 26 and B 37 concluded as bacteria of Bacillus spp., (b) all biopesticides active ingredient (Bacillus spp. B 26 and B 37) are compatible to the carrier material that contains carbohydrates and protein minimum, but not in carrier contains carbohydrates and protein optimum, as well in sterile water, and (c) the treatments of Bacillus spp. B 26 or B 37 were suspended in carrier of natural ingredients that contains carbohydrates and protein minimum or in sterile water (suspended in the water each will be treated) were applied by means of dipping of seedling for 1 hour and followed by spray on plants every 7 days, consistently suppress fusarium wilt on Phalaenopsis orchids.


Keywords


Phalaenopsis; Fusarium oxysporum; Identification; Effectiveness; Biopesticide

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v26n1.2016.p121-132

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