Potensi Campuran Spodoptera exigua Nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeNPV) dengan Insektisida Botani untuk Meningkatkan Mortalitas Ulat Bawang Spodoptera exigua (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) di Laboratorium

Luluk Sutji Marhaen, Fahmi Aprianto, Ahsol Hasyim, Liferdi Lukman

Abstract


[Potential Mixtures Between SeNPV with Botanical Insecticides to Increase Larvae Mortality of Spodoptera exigua (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Laboratory]


Hama Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) merupakan hama penting pada tanaman bawang di Indonesia. Pengendalian hama ini dengan insektisida kimia sintetik tidak memuaskan, bahkan telah menyebabkan hama menjadi resisten. SeNPV bila diaplikasikan secara tunggal untuk pengendalian hama S. exigua hasilnya masih kurang memuaskan. Namun, diharapkan SeNPV bila dicampurkan dengan insektisida botani dapat memberikan hasil yang lebih baik untuk mengendalikan hama S. exigua. Penelitian bertujuan mengetahui potensi campuran SeNPV dengan insektisida botani terhadap mortalitas larva S. exigua instar 3 di laboratorium. Percobaan dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Entomologi Balai Penelitian Tanaman Sayuran, Lembang ( ± 1.250 m dpl.), mulai bulan Juli sampai Oktober 2014. Larva S. exigua dikumpulkan dari pertanaman petani bawang merah di daerah Cirebon, Jawa Barat dan diperbanyak di Rumah Kasa Balai Penelitian Tanaman Sayuran. Penelitian dilaksanakan dalam dua tahap kegiatan, yaitu (1) uji pendahuluan dosis SeNPV dan empat jenis ekstrak tumbuhan, yaitu legundi (Vitex trifolia Linn.), serai wangi (Cymbopogon nardus), daun jeruk purut (Citrus hystrix DC), ubi gadung (Dioscorea hispida) dan (2) uji campuran beberapa dosis SeNPV dengan dosis sublethal dari ekstrak daun legundi (Vitex trifolia Linn.). Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan ialah rancangan acak lengkap yang terdiri atas enam perlakuan dan empat ulangan. Mortalitas larva S. exigua diamati mulai 24 jam sampai dengan 168 jam setelah perlakuan. Data mortalitas larva diolah menggunakan analisis probit untuk menetapkan nilai LC50. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa nilai LC50 SeNPV sebesar 424,67 ppm dan dari empat ekstrak insektisida botani yang terendah diperoleh dari insektisida daun legundi, yaitu 2.199, 277 ppm. Berdasarkan nilai LC50 campuran SeNPV dengan insektisida botani daun legundi menunjukkan efektivitas sinergistik dan meningkatkan efikasi 12,24 kali lipat jika dibandingkan dengan SeNPV secara tunggal. Kombinasi SeNPV dengan ekstrak daun legundi konsentrasi sublethal dapat meningkatkan efikasi virus SeNPV dalam mengendalikan S. exigua.

Keywords

Spodoptera exigua; SeNPV; Vitex trifolia; Sinergisme; Mortalitas larva

Abstract

The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a serious pest of shallot in Indonesia. Chemical methods have failed to control this pest as this has developed resistance to almost all synthetic insecticides available. SeNPV effectiveness when applied singly for S. exigua result is still unsatisfactory, but it is expected when SeNPV mixed with botanical insecticides give satisfactory result to control S. exigua. The aim of the study was to determine the potential of SeNPV with botanical insecticides to control third instars of S. exigua larvae under laboratory condition. This study has been conducted at Indonesian Vegetables Research Institute Lembang (±1,250 m asl), from July to October 2014. Sample of S. exigua larvae were collected from farmers’ field in Cirebon, West Java and mass production done in a screen house. Two bioassay steps were performed i.e. (1) preliminary test of SeNPV doses and botanical insecticides doses of extract of Vitex trifolia leaves, extract of Citronelol leaves (Cymbopogon nardus), extract of kaffir lime leaves (Citrus hystrix DC), extract of Dioscorea hispida tuber and (2) the combination of several doses of SeNPV and sublethal doses of extract of Vitex trifolia leaves. The experimental design used completely randomized design consist of six treatments and four replications. Mortality of S. exigua larvae was observed at 24 hours after exposures and repeatedly every 24 hours up to 168 hours of exposures. The mortality data was analyzed using probit analysis to determine the LC50 values. The analysis showed that the LC50 value of the lowest SeNPV is 424,67 ppm, and from four extracts botanical insecticide the lowest LC50 derived from extract of Vitex trifolia leaves namely 2,199, 277 ppm. Based on LC50 value of SeNPV mix with extract of Vitex trifolia leaves demonstrate the effectiveness of the synergistic and 12.24 fold increased their efficacy when compared to SeNPV singly. SeNPV in combination with sublethal concentration of extract of Vitex trifolia leaves can be increasing the efficacy of SeNPV in controlling S. exigua.


Keywords


Spodoptera exigua; SeNPV; Vitex trifolia; Sinergism; Larvae mortality

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v26n1.2016.p103-112

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