Perbanyakan Lisianthus [Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.)] Shinn Secara In Vitro Menggunakan Kuncup Bunga sebagai Sumber Eksplan (Micropropagation of Lisianthus [Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.)] Shinn Using Flower Bud as Explant Source)

Herni Shintiavira, Budi Winarto

Abstract


Lisianthus [Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.)] Shinn merupakan tanaman hias bernilai ekonomi tinggi. Pengembangan jenis tanaman ini terkendala oleh keterbatasan benih bermutu. Penyediaan benih bermutu melalui pemanfaatan kuncup bunga pada kultur in vitro lisianthus dilakukan dalam penelitian. Penelitian bertujuan mendapatkan teknologi perbanyakan lisianthus menggunakan kuncup bunga. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Kultur Jaringan, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Hias Segunung pada Januari hingga Desember 2013. Penelitian ini menggunakan E. grandiflorum klon 05 NK-70 dengan sumber eksplan kelopak bunga, mahkota, kepala sari, ovarium, dan penyangga bunga. Penelitian terdiri atas empat percobaan, yaitu Percobaan 1, eksplan diinisiasi pada media Murashige & Skoog (MS), MS +0,2 mg/l benzylaminopurin (BAP) + 0,02 mg/l asam naftalen asetat (NAA), MS+0,5 mg/l BAP + 1,5 mg/l thidiazuron (TDZ) dan MS+0,25 mg/l BAP. Percobaan 2, tunas hasil inisiasi diperbanyak pada media MS dan MS + 0,2 mg/ l BAP +0,02 mg/l NAA. Percobaan 3, pencegahan roset pada planlet dengan aplikasi media MS + 0,1–10 mg/l asam giberelin (GA3). Percobaan 4, induksi perakaran menggunakan media MS + 0,1–0,5 mg/l asam asetat-3-indol (IAA) tanpa atau ditambah 1 g/l arang aktif. Percobaan disusun menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL) 3–4 ulangan. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa penyangga bunga merupakan eksplan paling responsif dalam inisiasi tunas dan perbanyakan tunas pada media MS + 0,2 mg/l BAP + 0,02 mg/l NAA. Sementara media MS +7 mg/l GA3 sesuai untuk mencegah roset dan media MS +0,5 mg/l IAA + 1 g/l arang aktif sesuai untuk pengakaran tunas. Planlet diaklimatisasi menggunakan campuran arang sekam dan cocopeat dengan tingkat keberhasilan mencapai 80–100%.

Keywords

Lisianthus [Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.)] Shinn; Benih bermutu; Kuncup bunga; In vitro; Perbanyakan

Abstract

Lisianthus [Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.)] Shinn is an high economic value ornamental plant. However development of the plant was restricted by the limited of qualified plant propagating. Preparing the qualified plant propagation via in vitro culture using flower buds was studied in this research. Objective of the research was to obtain technology of mass propagation of lisianthus explants of flower buds.The experiment was conducted at Tissue Culture Laboratory, Indonesian Ornamental Crops Research Institute from January to December 2013. Eustoma grandiflorum 05 NK-70 clone was used as donor plant in the study. Explant type tested in experiment were sepal, petal, anther, ovary, and receptacle. This experiment consisted of four activities. Activitiy 1, shoot initiation at Murashige & Skoog (MS) medium, MS +0.2 mg/l BAP+ 0.02 mg/l NAA, MS+0.5 mg/l BAP + 1.5 mg/l TDZ and MS+ 0.25 mg/l BAP. Activitiy 2, shoot propagation at medium of MS and MS + 0.2 mg/ l BAP +0.02 mg/l NAA. Activitiy 3, application of GA3 in concentration of 0.1–10.0 mg/l added in MS medium was carried out to prevent rosette problem. Activitiy 4, root initiation on MS medium augmented with 0.1–0.5 mg/l IAA with or without 1 g/l activated-charcoal. The experiments were arranged in a complete randomized design (CRD) with 3–4 replications. Results of the study indicated that flower receptacle is most responsif explant of flower bud fragment in shoots initiation and shoots propagation cultured on MS media containing 0.2 mg/l BAP + 0.02 mg/l NAA. MS medium augmented with 7.0 mg/l GA3 was optimum medium for preventing rosette explant. MS medium containing 0.5 mg/l IAA and 1 g/l activated-charcoal was suitable rooting medium. Plantlets were easily acclimatized in burned-rice husk and cocopeat mixture medium with 80-100% survivability.


Keywords


Lisianthus [Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.)] Shinn; Qualified-seeds; Flower bud; In vitro; Propagation

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v26n1.2016.p41-48

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