Pengaruh Arah Pergerakan Nozzle dalam Penyemprotan Pestisida Terhadap Liputan dan Distribusi Butiran Semprot dan Efikasi Pestisida pada Tanaman Kentang

Laksminiwati Prabaningrum

Abstract


(Effect of Nozzle Movement in Pesticide Spraying on Coverage and Distribution of Droplets and Efficacy of Pesticide on Potato)

Petani kentang melakukan  penyemprotan pestisida dengan cara yang  bervariasi. Setiap cara aplikasi membutuhkan volume semprot yang bervariasi pula, yang akan menghasilkan liputan dan distribusi butiran semprot yang berbeda. Hal itu mempengaruhi kualitas dan keberhasilan penyemprotan. Oleh karena itu cara penyemprotan pestisida perlu dievaluasi. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada bulan Juli s.d. Oktober 2015 di Kebun Percobaan Margahayu (1.250 m dpl.), Balai Penelitian Tanaman Sayuran di Lembang. Tujuannya ialah untuk mengetahui pengaruh dua arah nozzle pada saat penyemprotan terhadap liputan dan distribusi butiran semprot serta efikasi pestisida terhadap hama dan penyakit tanaman kentang. Penelitian disusun menggunakan Petak Berpasangan dengan empat ulangan dan perlakuan yang diuji ialah : (A) cara penyemprotan dengan nozzle di atas tajuk menghadap ke bawah dan digerakkan ke depan dengan konstan dan (B) cara penyemprotan dengan nozzle diayunkan dari bawah ke arah tanaman dengan sudut 45o. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penyemprotan dengan nozzle diayunkan dari bawah ke arah tanaman dengan sudut 45o menghasilkan peliputan atau tingkat penutupan butiran semprot pada daun atas, tengah maupun bawah pada sisi atas maupun bawah yang lebih tinggi. Selain itu persentase daun yang mendapat paparan butiran semprot secara merata juga lebih tinggi. Hal itu mengakibatkan efikasi pestisida terhadap hama dan penyakit tanaman kentang menjadi lebih baik, yang ditunjukkan oleh populasi trips dan kutudaun pada perlakuan tersebut lebih rendah. Cara penyemprotan tersebut juga menguntungkan secara ekonomi dengan tingkat pengembalian sebesar 26,5. Dengan demikian cara penyemprotan tersebut layak untuk direkomendasikan sebagai cara penyemprotan yang tepat pada tanaman kentang.

Keywords

Kentang (Solanum tuberosum L.); Pestisida; Efikasi; Volume semprot; Kelayakan ekonomi

Abstract

Potato farmers spray pesticide with various methods. Each application method requires various spray volume, which will produce different coverage and distribution of droplets. It affects the quality and success of the spraying. Therefore the method of spraying need to be evaluated. The research was conducted in July until October 2015 at Margahayu Experimental Garden (1,250 m asl.), Indonesian Vegetable Research Institute in Lembang. The aim was to determine the effect of two way of nozzle in pesticide spraying on coverage and distribution of droplets and efficacy of pesticide against pests and diseases of potato. The experiment was compiled using the paired plots with four replications and the treatments tested were: (A) method of spraying with the nozzle at above the canopy facing down and moved forward steadily and (B) method of spraying with the nozzle moved from the bottom toward the plant at an angle of 45o. The results showed that compared with the method of spraying with the nozzle at above the canopy facing down and moved forward steadily, the method of spraying with the nozzle moved from the bottom toward the plant at an angle of 45o produced: (1) a better coverage of droplets at upside of the leaves on the upper leaves (47.92–77.08%), middle leaves (34.72–51.39%) and bottom leaves (29.17–51.39%). And also a better coverage of droplets at underside of the leaves on upper leaves (37.50–47.92%), middle leaves (12.50–20.83%), and bottom leaves (9.70–20.83%), (2) a higher uniform distribution of droplets at upside leaves (40.26–51.38%) and underside leaves (4.16–11.11%), (3) a higher efficacy of pesticide against thrips, aphid and alternaria disease i.e. 17.15%, 16.25%, and 16.46–27.96% respectively, (4) a higher yield i.e. 48.69%, and (5) the method of spraying was economically profitable with rate of return of 26.5. Thus the method of spraying was eligible to be recommended as an appropriate way of spraying on potato plants.


Keywords


Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.); Pesticide; Efficacy; Spray volume; Economic feasibility

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v27n1.2017.p113-126

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