Karakter Morfo-Fisiologi Daun Tiga Jenis Plantlet Anggrek Pada Tahapan Aklimatisasi (Leaf Morpho-Physiological Characters of Three Orchid Species on an Acclimatization Stage)

Arief Priyadi, Ema Hendriyani

Abstract


Teknik perbanyakan secara in vitro memerlukan kondisi lingkungan yang terkendali untuk mengoptimalkan pertumbuhan plantlet. Namun, saat plantlet dipindahkan pada fase ex vitro dengan kondisi lingkungan tidak terkendali sering terjadi kematian plantlet. Oleh karena itu aklimatisasi merupakan tahap penting pada transplantasi plantlet dari fase in vitro ke fase ex vitro. Selama 10 tahun ini Kebun Raya Eka Karya Bali (KREKB) bersama tiga Kebun Raya Indonesia (KR Bogor, KR Cibodas, dan KR Purwodadi) aktif berperan dalam upaya konservasi anggrek alam secara in vitro. Bulbophyllum echinolabium, Dendrobium fimbriatum, dan D. spectabile merupakan jenis anggrek alam yang telah berhasil diperbanyak secara in vitro di KREKB. Walaupun upaya perbanyakan ini telah lama dilakukan, tetapi tahapan aklimatisasi baru dilaksanakan pada tahun 2012. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi tahapan aklimatisasi plantlet dari tiga jenis anggrek alam hasil kultur in vitro di KREKB. Perlakuan pertama tahapan aklimatisasi adalah pemberian sungkup dengan tujuan mengurangi fluktuasi kelembaban udara. Sungkup perlahan-lahan dibuka secara bertahap selama 1 bulan agar plantlet dapat beradaptasi dengan kondisi lingkungan terbuka. Perlakuan kedua adalah penyiraman 2–3 kali/minggu dan pemberian pupuk daun sebanyak 1 kali/minggu. Tahapan ini dilakukan selama 14–16 bulan sejak penanaman. Persentase plantlet yang hidup dihitung secara periodik. Pada akhir tahapan aklimatisasi, dilakukan pengamatan karakter stomata dari ketiga jenis anggrek tersebut meliputi ukuran, densitas, dan pola buka-tutupnya selama 24 jam periode pengamatan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sebanyak 25–45% plantlet dapat bertahan hidup hingga akhir penelitian. Ukuran stomata pada tiap spesies bervariasi, stomata terbesar dimiliki oleh B. echinolabium. Densitas stomata antara daun tua dan muda tidak menunjukkan pola yang sama. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa karakter densitas stomata lebih dipengaruhi oleh spesies spesifik, sedangkan pengamatan terhadap pola buka tutup stomata pada D. fimbriatun dan D. spectabile menunjukkan bahwa kedua jenis anggrek tersebut memiliki tipe fotosintesis CAM, sedangkan pada B. echinolabium merupakan anggrek dengan tipe fotosintesis C3. Informasi ini tidak hanya penting untuk menentukan perlakuan yang tepat selama tahapan aklimatisasi tetapi juga untuk keefektifan aplikasi penyiraman dan pemupukan sehingga mendukung keberhasilan budidaya.

Keyword

Aklimatisasi anggrek; Stomata; C3; CAM

Abstract

In vitro plant propagation technique requires strict controls of its environmental conditions in order to optimize growth of plantlets. However, when the plantlets are moved to uncontrolled condition, the plantlets are often collaps. In this regards, acclimatization practices play important roles to provide transitional conditions from fully in vitro fully ex vitro. During the last 10 years, Bali Botanic Garden (BBG) has been actively involved in the in vitro propagation of species orchids, along with three other Botanic Gardens in Indonesia (Bogor, Cibodas, and Purwodadi). Bulbophyllum echinolabium, Dendrobium fimbriatum, and D. spectabile have been among the first succeded in vitro propagated species orchids by BBG. Despite of long periods of orchid in vitro propagation efforts, acclimatization practices was not started until 2012. This experiment was carried out to evaluate the acclimatization step of in vitro propagated native species orchid in BBG. Plantlets of three species of orchids were planted ex vitro. First of all, plastic sheet cover was applied to minimize air relative humidity fluctuation. After a month, the sheet was gradually opened until the plantlets were able to survive without cover. The second practices were water spraying 2–3 times a week and foliar fertilization each week. These were conducted in a period of 14 – 16 months since the planting date. Percentage of survived plantlets were recorded time after time. By the end of the acclimatization period, a series of stomatal observations were performed to asses its size, density, and opening-closing rhytm in a 24 hours period. The results showed that 25% to 45% of plantlets succeded to survive. Stomatal size varied across species, in which the largest is B. echinolabium’s and stomatal size of D. fimbriatum and D. spectabile were comparable each other. There was no general pattern of stomatal density between mature and young leaves because this trait seemed to be species specific. Diurnal stomatal opening-closing rhytm suggested that D. fimbriatum and D. spectabile are orchids with CAM photosynthetic pathway whereas the pathway of B. echinolabium is C3. Information on these characters was not only important to formulate best practices in acclimatization efforts but also further cultural practices such as watering and foliar fertilizer applications.


Keywords


Acclimatization; Stomata; C3; CAM

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v26n2.2016.p143-152

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