Karakterisasi Morfologi dan Anatomi Markisa F1 di Kebun Percobaan Berastagi (Morphology and Anatomy Characterization of Passion Fruit in Berastagi Experimental Farm)

Rina Christina Hutabarat, Rasiska Tarigan, Susilawaty Barus, Fitriana Nasution

Abstract


Ketersediaan varietas markisa unggul yang bermutu tinggi, produktif, tahan terhadap hama/penyakit dan toleran terhadap cekaman lingkungan merupakan salah satu faktor penting dalam peningkatan daya saing industri hortikultura nasional. Upaya untuk memperoleh varietas unggul dilakukan melalui silangan antaraksesi lokal yang memiliki karakter unggul. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengarakterisasi morfologi dan anatomi aksesi markisa lokal berkulit ungu, merah, dan markisa hasil silangan. Kegiatan dilaksanakan di Kebun Percobaan Berastagi mulai April 2014 sampai Juli 2014. Hasil analisis data diperoleh kemiripan morfologi markisa ungu dan markisa merah berdasarkan habitat, bunga, liana, teresterial, akar tunggang, batang dan arah tumbuh, sedangkan daun, bunga, buah, biji, dan warna batang berbeda. Berdasarkan karakter kuantitatif antara markisa F1 dengan markisa ungu memiliki kadar gula sama dengan markisa ungu lokal yakni 16,6o Brix. Markisa F1 memiliki 73,06 ml/100 g dengan total asam 1,53%. Berdasarkan hasil analisis dendogram diketahui hubungan morfologi markisa menunjukkan tingkat kemiripan markisa lokal merah dan markisa F1 sebesar 81%. Markisa F1 memiliki buah besar, warna kulit ungu kemerahan, aroma sari buah mirip dengan aroma jambu biji.

Keywords

Passiflora edulis f. edulis Sims; Karakter; Morfologi; Anatomi

Abstract

Availability of superior variety of passion fruits which high quality, resistant to pests or diseases, and tolerance to environmental stress are essential in improving the competitiveness of national horticultural industry. Superior varieties have been made through crossing local accessions that have superior characters. The aim of this experiment was to characterize the morphology and anatomy of purple passion, red passion, and F1 of passion fruit at Berastagi Experimental Farm from April 2014 to July 2014. Morphology and anatomy characterization obtained that purple passion fruit and red passion fruit had same characters based on habitat, flowers, lianas, terrestrial, taproot, stems, and direction of growth, whereas leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds, and stems color had different characters. Brix sugar level degrees between purple passion fruit and F1 almost similar, it was 16,6o Brix, while the terms content juice of passion fruit cross F1 was 73,06 ml/100 g with total acid was 1,53%. Dendogram based on morphology characters of purple, red, and passion fruit cross F1 had 81% of similarity degree. Passion fruit cross F1 had a great size, reddish purple color, and guava aroma.


Keywords


Passiflora edulis f. edulis Sims; Character; Morphology; Anatomy

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v26n2.2016.p189-196

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