Tanggap Empat Varietas Paprika (Capsicum annuum var. Grossum) terhadap Jumlah Cabang Berbeda di Dataran Tinggi Lembang, Jawa Barat

Nikardi Gunadi

Abstract


(Response of Four Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annuum var. Grossum) Varieties to Different Stem Number Per Plant Grown in the Highland of Lembang, West Java)


Pada saat ini, beberapa varietas paprika baru telah tersedia sebagai pilihan alternatif petani. Setiap varietas paprika mempunyai tipe pertumbuhan dan kapasitas masing-masing dalam memproduksi buahnya. Di Indonesia, penelitian tentang pengaruh jumlah cabang per tanaman baru dilakukan pada beberapa varietas saja tetapi pada varietas paprika lainnya belum dilakukan.Penelitian dengan tujuan mengetahui tanggap empat varietas paprika (Capsicum annuum var. Grossum) terhadap jumlah cabang berbeda telah dilakukan di Kebun Percobaan Balai Penelitian Tanaman Sayuran, Lembang (1.250 m dpl.), Jawa Barat dari bulan April sampai bulan Desember 2010. Dua faktor perlakuan yang dicoba pada penelitian ini, yaitu (1) jumlah cabang per tanaman (dua, tiga, dan empat cabang), dan (2) varietas (Spider, E 41.9560, Zamboni, dan Inspiration). Kombinasi perlakuan tersebut diatur dengan menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok pola faktorial dengan tiga ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa jumlah cabang per tanaman berpengaruh nyata terhadap hasil paprika dan tanaman paprika dengan tiga cabang per tanaman memberikan hasil total dan kelas buah >200 g tertinggi yang berbeda nyata dengan tanaman paprika dengan dua dan empat cabang per tanaman. Rerata hasil total paprika dengan tiga cabang per tanaman ialah 19% lebih tinggi daripada dengan dua cabang per tanaman dan 15% lebih tinggi daripada dengan empat cabang per tanaman. Pada kelas buah >200 g, tanaman paprika yang ditanam dengan tiga cabang per tanaman berturut-turut 16% dan 19% lebih tinggi daripada tanaman paprika yang ditanam dengan dua dan empat cabang per tanaman. Hasil paprika tidak berbeda nyata di antara keempat varietas yang dicoba dan rerata hasil total paprika pada percobaan ini ialah 12,05 kg/m2. Rerata bobot buah varietas E 41.9560 tertinggi yang berbeda nyata dibandingkan dengan rerata bobot buah ketiga varietas lainnya. Rerata bobot buah yang tertinggi kedua ditunjukkan oleh varietas Zamboni, kemudian diikuti oleh varietas Inspiration dan Spider. Rerata bobot buah dari varietas E 41.9560, Zamboni, Inspiration, dan Spider berturut-turut 250, 231, 220, dan 205 g. Hasil penelitian ini merekomendasikan bahwa apabila yang diinginkan buah dengan ukuran besar maka varietas E 41.9560 atau Zamboni yang ditanam, sedangkan bila yang diinginkan buah dengan ukuran sedang maka varietas Spider atau Inspiration yang ditanam. Hasil penelitian ini dapat digunakan sebagai rekomendasi untuk pemilihan varietas dan teknik budidaya paprika dalam kondisi rumah plastik di dataran tinggi.

Keywords

Capsicum annuum var. Grossum; Jumlah cabang; Varietas; Hasil

Abstract

At present, several new sweet pepper varieties are available as the alternative options for farmers. Each variety has its own characters in terms of growth type and the capacity of fruit production. In Indonesia, research on the effect of number of stems per plant were carried out only on limited varieties and not yet on the new varieties. An experiment with the aims at determining the response of four sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum var. Grossum) varieties to different stem number per plant was conducted at the field experiment of Indonesian Vegetable Research Institute (IVEGRI), Lembang (1,250 m asl.), West Java from April to December 2010. Two factor treatments were determined i.e. (1) number of stem per plant (two, three, and four stems), and (2) varieties (Spider, E 41.9560, Zamboni, and Inspiration). The treatment combinations were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The results indicated that the number of stem per plant significantly affected total yields and plants grown with three stems per plant gave highest total yields and yield of class >200 g as compared to plants grown with two and four stems per plant. In average, the total yields of plants grown with three stems per plant were 19% higher than those of plants grown with two stems per plant and 15% higher than those of plants grown with four stems per plant. In class >200 g, plants grown with three stems per plant gave 16% and 19% higher yields than plants grown with two and four stems per plant, respectively. In this experiment, the total yields were not significantly different between varieties and in average the total yields were 12.05 kg/m2. Mean fruit weight of E 41.9560 was significantly highest compared to those of other varieties. The second highest of mean fruit weight was indicated by Zamboni, followed by Inspiration and Spider. Mean fruit weight of E 41.9560, Zamboni, Inspiration, and Spider were 250, 231, 220, and 205 g, respectively. The results suggest that to obtain relatively big size fruit, E 41.9560 or Zamboni is recommended, however, in order to obtain relatively medium size fruit, Spider or Inspiration is recommended. The results can be used as a recommendation in variety selection and growing technique of sweet pepper grown under plastic house.


Keywords


Capsicum annuum var. Grossum; Number of stem; Variety; Yield

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v26n1.2016.p67-80

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