Mengatasi Cemaran Getah Kuning pada Buah Manggis (Garcinia mangostana) dengan Aplikasi Kalsium dan Teknologi Lubang Resapan Biopori

Odit Ferry Kurniadinata, Roedhy Poerwanto, Darda Efendi, Ade Wachjar

Abstract


[The Effect of Calcium and Bio-Pores Absorption Holes Technology to Reduce Yellow Sap Contamination in Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana)]


Cemaran getah kuning pada buah manggis akan menurunkan kualitas buah. Cemaran getah kuning terjadi pada saat getah mencemari permukaan kulit buah atau aril akibat pecahnya saluran getah kuning. Pecahnya saluran getah kuning berkaitan dengan keberadaan kalsium dalam pericarp buah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk (1) mendapatkan dosis dan sumber kalsium terbaik dan efisien dalam menurunkan cemaran getah kuning pada buah manggis, (2) mengetahui pengaruh lubang resapan biopori di dalam usaha mengatasi cemaran getah kuning pada buah manggis, dan (3) mengetahui kombinasi terbaik dari aplikasi kalsium dan lubang resapan biopori untuk meningkatkan serapan dan translokasi kalsium ke buah dan dapat menanggulangi cemaran getah kuning pada buah manggis. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan: (1) pemberian kalsium, baik bersumber dari dolomit maupun kalsit, mampu menurunkan cemaran getah kuning pada aril maupun kulit buah manggis, (2) berdasarkan efisiensi dan efektifitas maka dosis pupuk kalsium sebesar 1,6 kg kalsium kalsit/pohon/tahun menjadi dosis terbaik dalam mengatasi cemaran getah kuning, (3) teknologi lubang resapan biopori dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan dan perkembangan akar muda yang selanjutnya dapat meningkatkan serapan kalsium dan menurunkan cemaran getah kuning setelah 2 tahun aplikasi, (4) kombinasi 1,6 kg kalsium kalsit/pohon/tahun dengan teknologi lubang resapan biopori (LRB) merupakan teknik yang efektif dan mampu meningkatkan persentase produksi buah manggis berkualitas bebas cemaran getah kuning.

Keywords

Getah kuning; Manggis; Kalsium; Xylem; Pita kaspari; Biopori; Akar

Abstract

The yellow sap contamination caused poor quality of mangosteen fruit. Yellow sap will be an issue when the sap is contaminating the surface of the fruit or aryl caused by the break of yellow sap channels. The break of yellow sap channel is associated with the low concentration of calcium in the fruit pericarp. The study was aimed to: (1) obtain the optimum dose and source of calcium, (2) determine the effect of biopore on efforts to increase the abundance of calcium uptake and translocation to the optimization of calcium in the mangosteen fruit, and (3) determine the best combination of application calcium and biopore to increase the uptake and translocation of calcium to fruit and can cope with yellow sap contamination in the mangosteen fruit. The results show that calcium sources, both of dolomite and calcite, are able to reduce contamination of yellow sap on aryl or mangosteen rind. Based on efficiency and effectiveness, 1.6 kg calcium calcite/tree/year is the best dose to reduce yellow sap contamination. Biopore affects the increase in calcium uptake into fruit pericarp tissues indirectly. The application of 1.6 kg calcium calcite/tree/year and biopore is an effective and easy to apply and is able to increase the percentage of the mangosteen fruit with yellow sap contaminant free.


Keywords


Yellow sap; Mangosteen; Calcium; Xylem; Casparian strip; Biopore; Root

Full Text:

PDF

References


Chiu, TF 1980, ‘Calcium-45 mobility in young apple trees grown under different nutrien-calcium condition’, J.Agric.Res.China, vol. 29, no.31, pp.183-94

Dorly, Tjitrosemito S, Poerwanto, R & Juliarni 2008, Secretory duct structure and phytochemistry compounds of yellow latex in mangosteen fruit, Hayati J. of Biosciences, vol. 15, no. 3, p 99-104.

Drazeta, L, Lang, A, Hall, AJ, Volz, RK & Jameson, PE 2004, ‘Causes and effect of changes in xylem functionality in apple fruit, Ann.Bot., vol. 93, pp. 275-82.

Hidayat, R 2002, Kajian Ritme Pertumbuhan Tanaman Manggis (Garcinia mangostana L.) dan Faktor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhi. [Disertasi], Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor, Indonesia.

Himelrick, DG 1981, ‘Determination of total and ionic calcium in apple leaf and fruit tissues’, J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., vol. 106, pp. 619-21.

Himelrick, DG & McDuffie, RF 1983, ‘The calcium cycle: Uptake and distribution in apple trees’, HortScience, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 147-50.

Huang, X, Wang, HC, Li, J, Yin, J, Yuan, W, Lu, J & Huang HB 2005, ‘An overview of calcium’s role in lychee fruit cracking’, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Lychee, Longan, Rambutan and Other Sapindaceae Plants, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 25-28 Agt 2003. Belgium, Acta Horticulturae, vol. 665, pp. 231-40.

Joyce, DC, Shorter, AJ & Hockings, PD 2001, ‘Mango fruits calcium levels and the effect of post harvest calcium infiltration at different maturities’, Scientia Horticulturae, vol. 91, pp. 81-99.

Kartika, JG 2004, ‘Studi pertumbuhan buah, gejala getah kuning dan burik pada buah manggis (Garcinia mangostana L.)’, Skripsi. Bogor, Fakultas Pertanian, Institut Pertanian, Bogor.

Marschner 1995, Mineral nutrition of higher plants, 2nd edition, Acad. Press. London.

Park, Sunghun, Cheng, NH, Pittman, JK, Yoo, KS, Park, J, Smith, RH & Hirschi, KD 2005, ‘Increased calcium levels and prolonged shelf life in tomatoes expressing arabidopsis H+/Ca2+ transporters’, Plant Physiology, vol. 139, pp. 1194-206.

Peters, JB, Kelling, KA & Schulte, EE 1996, Choosing between liming materials, University of Wisconsin-System Board of Regents and University of Wisconsin-Extension, Cooperative Extension. RP-12-05-(I-11/96).

Poerwanto, R, Dorly & Martias, M 2010, ‘Getah kuning pada buah manggis dalam reorientasi riset untuk mengoptimalkan produksi dan rantai nilai hortikultura’, Seminar Nasional Hortikultura, 25–26 Januari 2010. Perhimpunan Hortikultura Indonesia. Denpasar Bali, hlm. 255-60.

Purnama, T, Poerwanto, R & Efendi, D 2013, ‘Aplikasi kalsium dan boron untuk pengendalian cemaran getah kuning pada buah manggis’, J. Hort., vol. 23, no. 4, hlm. 350-7.

Rigney, CJ & Wills, RBH 1981, ‘Calcium movement, a regulating factor in the initiation of tomato fruit ripening’, HortScience, vol. 16, pp. 550-51.

Song, Wen-pei Chen Wei, Kurniadinata, OF, Wang Hui-cong, & Huang Xu-ming 2014, ‘Application of electron probe to the observation of in situ calcium distributionin fruit tissues’, J. of Fruit Sci., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 730-32.

Stevens, G, Gladbach, T, Motavalli, P & Dunn, D 2005, ‘Soil calcium: Magnesium ratios and lime recommendations for cotton’, The Journal of Cotton Science, vol. 9, pp. 65-71.

Tennant 1975, ‘A test of a modified line intersect method of estimating root length’, J. of Ecology, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 995-1001.

White, PJ & Broadley, MR 2003, ‘Calcium in plant’, Annals of Botany, vol. 92, pp. 487-511.

Wiebel, J, Chacko, EK, Downton, WJS & Ludders, P 1994, ‘Influence of irradiance on photosynthesis, morphology, and growth of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) seedlings’, Tree Physiology, vol. 14, pp. 263-74.

Yang, HQ & Jie, YL 2005, ‘Uptake and transport of calcium in plants’, Journal of Plant Physiology and Molecular Biology, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 227-34.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v26n1.2016.p59-66

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.
';



Copyright (c) 2016 Indonesian Center for Horticulture Research and Development

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 


Jurnal Hortikultura (J.Hort) has been indexed :

        

===================================================================================================================

 Creative Commons License
Junal Hortikultura is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at http://ejurnal.litbang.pertanian.go.id/index.php/jhort
Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at www.litbang.pertanian.go.id.

Indonesian Center for Horticulture Research and Development

Jl. Tentara Pelajar No. 3C Kampus Penelitian Pertanian Cimanggu Bogor 16124, Indonesia
Telp.  +62 251-8372096, 7565366, (Ext. 324) (Hunting System)
Faks.  +62 251-8387651, 8575664, 8372096
E-mail: redaksi.jhorti@gmail.com

ISSN: 0853-7097
E-ISSN: 2502-5120

 

free web stats

View My Stats