Analisis Fenotipik Progeni Tiga Galur Tomat Transgenik Partenokarpi di Fasilitas Uji Terbatas (Phenotypic Analysis on Progenies of Three Transgenic Parthenocarpy Tomato Lines in Biosafety Containment)

Saptowo Jumali Pardal, Ragapadmi Purnamaningsih, Endang Gati Lestari, nFN Slamet

Abstract


Kebutuhan masyarakat akan buah tomat konsumsi dan untuk industri cenderung kian meningkat setiap tahunnya, sedangkan produksi tomat masih rendah. Hingga kini, produksi tomat nasional masih sangat rendah,yaitu 992.780 ton sehingga belum mencukupi kebutuhan pasar yang mencapai 1.230.000 ton. Beberapa upaya telah dilakukan pemerintah untuk meningkatkan produksi tomat, tetapi masih menemui beberapa masalah di lapangan. Perakitan varietas unggul tomat produktivitas tinggi dan tanpa biji (seedless) sangatlah diharapkan guna memenuhi kebutuhan masyarakat dan industri. Partenokarpi merupakan fenomena terjadinya pembentukan buah tanpa melalui proses penyerbukan dan atau pembuahan. Teknologi partenokarpi dapat digunakan untuk meningkatkan produksi tomat melalui peningkatan pembentukan buah (fruits setting) dan buah tanpa biji. Perakitan galur tomat partenokarpi melalui rekayasa genetik telah dilakukan di Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Sumber Daya Genetik Pertanian (BB Biogen). Enam puluh galur (event) tomat transgenik T0 yang membawa gen DefH9-iaaM telah dihasilkan dan tiga galur di antaranya, yaitu OvR#14-4, OvM2#10-1, dan OvM2#6-2 telah terpilih sebagai galur terbaik berdasarkan karakter partenokarpinya. Galur tomat transgenik ini selanjutnya dievaluasi lebih lanjut secara molekuler dan fenotipik di rumah kaca dan rumah kasa fasilitas uji terbatas (FUT). Hasil analisis molekuler menunjukkan bahwa semua galur tomat transgenik yang diuji masih membawa gen DefH9-iaaM. Hasil evaluasi awal terhadap tiga galur tomat transgenik secara fenotipik juga menunjukkan sifat partenokarpi, yaitu meningkatnya jumlah buah, berat buah, dan berkurangnya jumlah biji (seedless). Analisis fenotipik lebih lanjut terhadap progeni ketiga galur tersebut pada percobaan ini menunjukkan adanya ekspresi fenotipik dari gen DefH9-iaaM, di mana galur OvR#14-4 memiliki ekspresi fenotipik partenokarpi lebih baik daripada galur OvM2#10-1 dan OvM2#6-2.

Keywords

Tomat; Rekayasa genetik; Gen partenokarpi; Galur transgenik; Analisis fenotipik

Abstract

The demand of tomato fruits for daily consumption and industry materials tend to increase annually, while the tomato production is still low. Up till now, the national tomato production was still low (992,780 ton) so that it’s not enough to fulfill the market demand (1,230,000 ton). Many effort have been conducted by the government in order to increase the tomato production, but there were still many contrains in the field. The development of elite tomato cultivars is very urgent in order to suffice the public and industrial demand. Parthenocarpy is a phenomenon that fruits can be produced without pollination and fertilization. Parthenocarpy technology can be used to increase tomato productivity through increasing the fruit setting and seedless fruits. The development of transgenic parthenocarpy tomato cultivars was conducted through genetic engineering at Central Research for Biotechnology and Genetic Resources Research and Development (ICABIOGRAD). Sixty transgenic T0 tomato lines which contain DefH9-iaaM gene were produced. Those transgenic tomato lines were then further evaluated by molecular and phenotypic in biosafety containment. Molecular analysis showed that all tomato lines were still contained DefH9-iaaM gene. The phenotypic analysis showed parthenocarpy phenotypic, such as increasing fruits number, fruits weight, and decreasing seeds number. Further phenotypic analysis on progeny of those lines in this experiments showed the phenotypic characters of the parthenocarpy gene. Line OvR1#14-4 had better parthenocarpy characters than that of lines OvM2#10-1 and OvM2#6-2.


Keywords


Tomato; Genetic engineering; Parthenocarpy gene; Transgenic lines; Phenotypic analysis

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v26n1.2016.p21-30

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