Karakterisasi Ras Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense dengan Metode Vegetative Compatibility Group Test dan Identifikasi Kultivar Pisang yang Terserang

N Nasir, Jumjumidang -

Abstract


Beberapa isolat Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) di Sumatera Barat telah dikoleksi untuk mengkaji karakterisasi, distribusi, serta kultivar-kultivar pisang yang terserang. Penelitian dilakukan dari bulan Mei 1999 sampai dengan bulan Maret 2000 di enam dari 14 Daerah Tingkat II, yaitu Solok, Tanah Datar, Agam, Bukit Tinggi, Padang, dan Sawahlunto Sijunjung. Isolat Foc dikumpulkan dari tanaman pisang yang memperlihatkan gejala luar terserang Foc. Isolat-isolat ini selanjutnya dimurnikan dengan teknik spora tunggal dan ras Foc diidentifikasi secara vegetative compatibility group (VCG). Gejala layu fusarium ditemukan di semua lokasi penelitian pada 15 kultivar pisang, baik pisang buah meja seperti pisang buai (AAA), pisang raja serai/sereh (AAB), dan pisang ambon (AAA), maupun pisang olahan seperti pisang kepok (ABB/BBB). Tiga puluh tujuh isolat Foc dikoleksi dari jaringan vaskular pisang yang memperlihatkan gejala luar serangan Foc. Isolat-isolat tersebut terkelompok ke dalam vegetative com- patibility group 0120, 0124, 0125, 01213, 01215, 01216, 0128, dan 01219. Tiga puluh dua dari 37 isolat Foc yang dikoleksi ini diidentifikasi sebagai Foc ras 4, yaitu VGC 0120, 01213, 01215, 01216, dan 01219. Sedangkan lima isolat lainnya termasuk ke dalam  VCG 0124 dan 01218 Foc ras 1. Isolat VCG 01216 ditemukan di semua lokasi pengamatan pada 14 dari 15 kultivar terserang Foc. Sedangkan VCG 0120 hanya di temukan di Padang. Distribusi dari VCG lainnya lebih bervariasi di setiap daerah pengamatan. Kultivar cavendish (buai, AAA) yang dinyatakan resisten terhadap ras 1, ternyata ditemukan diserang oleh Foc ras 1 VCG 01218. Kultivar kepok yang diakui tahan terhadap Foc ras 4 dan merupakan salah satu kultivar andalan di Sumatera Barat, ditemukan diserang oleh Foc ras 4 VCG 0120, 01215, 01216, dan 01219, kultivar ini bahkan juga diserang oleh Foc ras 1 VCG 0124.

Kata kunci: Pisang; Vegetative compatibilty group; Ras; Fusarium oxysporum cubense; Distribusi.

ABSTRACT. Several isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) in West Sumatera have been collected to investigate their characterizations, distributions, and cultivars affected. The research was conducted from May 1999 to March 2000 in six out of 14 dis- tricts of this province: Solok, Tanah Datar, Agam, Bukit Tinggi, Padang, and Sawahlunto Sijunjung. Isolates derived from diseased plant showing external Foc symptoms. Pure isolate was resulted by using single spore techniques (sst) then race of Foc were identified based on vegetative compatibility group (VCG) test. Wilt Fusarium symptoms were found in 15 banana cultivars at six (out of 14) districts in West Sumatera. The attacked cultivars included popular des- sert bananas in West Sumatera are pisang buai (AAA), pisang raja serai/sereh (AAB) and pisang ambon (AAA). The most popular cooking banana, pisang kepok (ABB/BBB) was also succumbed to Foc. Thirty seven isolates of the pathogen Foc have been collected from cultivars with symptoms of Foc. The isolates were grouped into vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) 0120, 0124, 01213, 01215, 01216, 01218, and 01219. Thirty two out of the 37 isolates were identified as Foc race 4 in VCG 0120, 01213, 01215, 01216, and 01219. While five isolates were grouped into VCG 0124 and 01218 Foc race 1. Isolat VCG 01216 distributed widely in all of the observed areas in the 14 out of 15 cultivars infected with Foc. In contrast, VCG 0120 was only found in the district of Padang among the six of observed areas. Cavendish cultivar buai AAA which is stated resistant to Foc ras 1, surprisingly, was infected by Foc race 1 VCG 01218 in this study. Kepok which is formerly considered resistant to Foc race 4, was attacked by VCG 0120, 01215, 01216, and 01219, those all are race 4 of Foc. Ironically, kepok was also succumbed to Foc race 1 VCG 0124.


Keywords


Banana;Vegetative compatibility groups; Race; Fusarium oxysporum cubense; Distribution.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v13n4.2003.p276-284

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