Status Resistensi Spodoptera exigua Hubn. pada Tanaman Bawang Merah Asal Kabupaten Cirebon, Brebes, dan Tegal terhadap Insektisida yang Umum Digunakan Petani di Daerah Tersebut

Tonny Koetani Moekasan, Rofik Sinung Basuki

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Penelitian terdiri atas survai dan penelitian laboratorium. Tujuan survai adalah untuk mengetahui perilaku petani dalam menggunakan insektisida untuk mengendalikan ulat bawang dan penelitian di laboratorium bertujuan mengetahui status resistensi ulat bawang terhadap insektisida yang umum digunakan oleh petani. Survai dilakukan terhadap 60 orang petani di Kecamatan Gebang dan Losari (Kabupaten Cirebon), Kecamatan Wanasari dan Larangan (Kabupaten Brebes), dan Kecamatan Dukuhturi dan Margadana (Kabupaten Tegal) pada bulan Juni sampai dengan Juli 2005. Penelitian di laboratorium dilaksanakan pada bulan Juli sampai dengan Desember 2005. Pengujian menggunakan metode pencelupan potongan daun bawang terhadap larva S. exigua instar ke-2 dan atau ke-3 asal Kecamatan Gebang dan Losari (Kabupaten Cirebon), Kecamatan Wanasari dan Larangan (Kabupaten Brebes), Kecamatan Dukuhturi dan Margadana (Kabupaten Tegal). Penghitungan nilai LC50 tiap jenis insektisida yang diuji dilakukan menggunakan program komputer analisis Probit. Hasil survai menunjukkan bahwa insektisida yang umum digunakan petani untuk mengendalikan ulat bawang adalah spinosad, klorpirifos, triazofos, metomil, betasiflutrin, siromazin, karbosulfan, tiodikarb, dan abamektin. Petani umumnya mencampur 2-5 jenis insektisida dan melakukan penyemprotan 2-3 kali per minggu. Konsentrasi formulasi insektisida yang digunakan pada umumnya di bawah konsentrasi formulasi anjuran, tetapi volume semprot yang digunakan sesuai dengan yang direkomendasikan. Hasil penelitian di laboratorium menunjukkan terdapat perbedaan kerentanan S. exigua, bergantung pada asal (strain) ulat bawang yang diuji. Ulat bawang asal Kecamatan Gebang dan Losari (Kabupaten Cirebon) terindikasi resisten terhadap insektisida spinosad, klorpirifos, triazofos, betasiflutrin, siromazin, karbosulfan, tiodikab, dan abamektin. Ulat bawang asal Kecamatan Wanasari dan Larangan (Kabupaten Brebes) terindikasi resisten terhadap insektisida klorpirifos dan betasiflutrin, sedangkan ulat bawang asal Kecamatan Wanasari terindikasi resisten terhadap insektisida siromazin, karbosulfan, dan abamektin. Ulat bawang asal Kecamatan Dukuhturi dan Margadana (Kabupaten Tegal) terindikasi resisten terhadap insektisida karbosulfan dan tiodikarb, sedangkan ulat bawang asal Kecamatan Dukuhturi terindikasi resisten pula terhadap insektisida spinosad, klorpirifos, dan siromazin.

ABSTRACT. Moekasan, T.K. and R. S. Basuki. 2007. Resistance Status of Spodoptera exigua Hubn. on Shallot from Cirebon, Brebes, and Tegal District to Several Insecticide Commonly Used by Farmers. The research consisted of survey and laboratory study. The aim of the survey was to identify farmers behaviour on using insecticide on shallot. While the laboratory study was aimed to find out the resistance status of pest toward pesticides commonly used by farmers. The survey conducted from June until July 2005, at Gebang and Losari Subdistricts (Cirebon District), Wanasari and Larangan Subdistricts (Brebes District), Dukuhturi and Margadana Subdistricts (Tegal District). Number of respondents was 60 farmers. The purpose of the laboratory study was to determine the resistance status of S. exigua larvae to several insecticides commonly used by farmers at those locations. The laboratory study conducted from July until December 2005. The leaf-dip bioassay used on second and third instar of S. exigua larvae from Gebang and Losari Subdistricts (Cirebon District), Wanasari and Larangan Subdistricts (Brebes District), and Dukuhturi and Margadana Subdistricts (Tegal District). The data was analyzed using Probit analyze programme. Results of the survey showed that farmers used spinosad, chlorpyriphos, triazophos, methomyl, betasifluthrin, cyromazin, carbosulfan, tiodicarb, and abamectin to control S. exigua Hubn. Usually farmers mix 2-5 insecticides and spray 2-3 times per week. Concentration of formulation used were under the recommendation, but the spraying volume based on the recommendation. Results of laboratory study showed that S. exigua larvae taken from Gebang and Losari Subdistricts (Cirebon Districts) were resistant to spinosad, chlorpyriphos, triazophos, betasifluthrin, cyromazin, carbosulfan, tiodicarb, and abamectin. Beet armyworm larvae taken from Wanasari and Larangan Subdistricts (Brebes Districts) were resistant to chlorpyriphos and betasifluthrin, and larvae from Wanasari were also resistant to cyromazine, carbosulfan and abamectin. The larvae taken from Dukuhturi and Margadana Subdistrict (Tegal District) were resistant to carbosulfan and tiodicarb, and the larvae from Dukuhturi Subdistrict (Tegal District) were also resistant to spinosad, chlorpyriphos, and cyromazine.

Keywords


Allium cepa; Spodoptera exigua; Beet armyworm; Spinosad; Chlorpyriphos; Triazophos; Methomyl; Betasiflutrin; Cyromazine, Carbosulfan, Tiodicarb, Abamectin; Resistancy.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v17n4.2007.p%25p

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