Peningkatan Infektivitas Jamur Entomopatogen, Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuill. pada Berbagai Bahan Carrier untuk Mengendalikan Hama Penggerek Bonggol Pisang, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar di Lapangan

Ahsol Hasyim

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di kebun petani pisang di daerah Baso, Kabupaten Agam dari bulan Oktober 2002 sampai Februari 2003. Penelitian bertujuan mengetahui peningkatan infektivitas jamur entomopatogen, Beauveria bassiana menggunakan bahan carrier dan model bahan perangkap yang baik untuk mengendalikan hama penggerek bonggol pisang, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar. Untuk mengetahui peningkatan infektivitas jamur B. bassiana, penelitian ditata dalam rancangan acak lengkap dengan 7 perlakuan dan 4 ulangan. Perlakuan terdiri dari 6 bahan carrier sebagai perlakuan, yaitu tepung jagung, tepung beras, tepung maizena, talk, minyak sayur, air, dan kontrol (konidia kering). Jamur B. bassiana yang telah dicampur dengan bahan carrier sebanyak 100 g atau 100 ml disebarkan pada potongan bonggol bagian atas kemudian ditutup dengan batang semu pisang. � � Sedangkan untuk mengetahui model alat perangkap yang baik digunakan 3 macam bahan perangkap yaitu (1) bonggol pisang + batang semu, (2) bonggol pisang, dan (3) batang semu dengan 6 ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tepung beras merupakan carrier yang paling baik dalam pemanfaatan B. bassiana dan menyebabkan mortalitas hama penggerek bonggol paling tinggi dibandingkan carrier minyak sayur dan air yang menyebabkan mortalitas paling rendah atau sama dengan B. bassiana tanpa bahan carrier. Mortalitas hama penggerek bonggol C. sordidus yang paling tinggi, yakni 95% diperoleh jika menggunakan B.bassiana dengan tepung beras sebagai carrier pada perangkap bonggol dan ditutupi batang semu pisang. Sedangkan B. bassiana dengan menggunakan minyak atau air dan tanpa substrat carrier hanya dapat menyebabkan mortalitas hama penggerek bonggol paling rendah, yaitu berturut-turut 72, 75, dan 70%. Mortalitas hama penggerek bonggol pisang yang disebabkan oleh jamur B. bassiana yang dicampur dengan carrier tepung beras, paling tinggi diperoleh menggunakan alat perangkap bonggol pisang dengan batang semu. Hasil penelitian memperlihatkan bahwa berbagai carrier berbentuk tepung dapat meningkatkan infektivitas jamur entomopatogen, B. bassiana dalam mengendalikan hama penggerek bonggol pisang, C. sordidus di lapangan.

ABSTRACT. Hasyim, A. 2007. Enhancing Infectious Capacity of Entomopathogen Fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuill. Using Various Carrier Materials in Controlling Banana Corm Borer, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar under Field Condition. This experiment was conducted at Baso banana farmer field, Agam District from October 2002 to February 2003. The objectives of these studies were to know the infectious capacity of entomopathogen fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin using various carrier materials and to know the best trapping model in controlling banana corm borer Cosmopolites sordidus Germar. A randomized complete design with 7 treatments and 4 replications were used in this study. The treatments consisted of 6 carriers, i.e. corn powder, talc, rice powder, maizena powder, vegetable oil, water, and control (dry conidia). Amount of 100 g or 100 ml mixture of B. bassiana were distributed by hand or sprayed with water on cut surface of the banana corm then covered by sliced banana pseudostem. Futhermore, 3 types of trapping model i.e (1) banana corm + pseudostem, (2) banana corm, and (3) pseudostem were used with 6 replications to find out the best trapping design. The results showed that rice powder was the best carrier for delivery of B. bassiana and caused highest mortality of banana corm borer. On the other hand, vegetable oil, water, and without carrier material caused the lowest mortality of banana corm borer. The highest mortality of adult banana weevil borer, C. sordidus reached 95% when weevil exposure using rice powder carrier on corm and pseudostem. While the B. bassiana exposure using liquid carrier such as vegetable oil, water carrier, and without carrier material on corm and pseudostem caused the lowest mortality of C. sordidus of 72, 75, and 70% respectively. The highest mortality of banana corm borer caused by B. bassiana was found in the treatment with rice powder as a carrier material and pseudostem trapping design. The results demonstrated that powder as a carrier could enhance the infectious capacity of entomopathogenic fungus B. bassiana against banana weevil borer, C. sordidus under field condition

Keywords


Musa sp.; B. bassiana; Infectivity; Carrier; Banana corm borer; Mortality.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v17n4.2007.p%25p

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