Variabilitas Genetik antara Tanaman Induk Manggis dan Keturunannya

Elina Mansyah, Muhamad Jawal Anwaudinsyah, F. Usman, T. Purnama

Abstract


Penelitian dilaksanakan mulai bulan Januari sampai Mei 2002 di laboratorium Biologi Molekuler dan Immunologi,
Unit Penelitian Bioteknologi Perkebunan-Bogor. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui variabilitas genetik
antara tanaman induk manggis dan keturunannya. Observasi dilakukan menggunakan tiga tanaman induk manggis
yang berasal dari Sumatera Barat, yaitu Balai Baru (Kodya Padang), Padang Laweh dan Subarang Sukam (Kabupaten
Sawahlunto/Sijunjung) dengan keturunannya masing-masing. Tanaman keturunan berupa bibit semaian dari
masing-masing tanaman induk yang berumur 1 tahun. Analisis variabilitas genetik dilakukan melalui teknik RAPD
menggunakan lima primer terseleksi, yaitu SB-13 (AGTCAGCCAC), SB-19 (CAGCACCCAC), OPH-12
(ACGCGCATGT), OPH-13 (CACGCCACAC), dan OPH-18 (GAATCGGCCA). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan
bahwa terdapat variasi genetik antara induk manggis dan keturunannnya yang ditunjukkan oleh ketidakmiripan antara
pola pita DNA. Variasi genetik rataan dari individu turunan adalah sebesar 56,35%. Hasil penelitian ini memperkuat
informasi tentang variabilitas genetik pada manggis, dan membuka peluang perbaikan varietas melalui seleksi
terhadap populasi manggis indijenus.
Kata kunci: Garcinia mangostana L.; Variabilitas genetik; Tanaman induk; Turunan; RAPD.
AB STRACT. Mansyah, E., M. J. Anwaruddin Syah, F. Usman, and T. Purnama. 2004. Ge netic vari abil ity
between man go steen mother plants and their off springs. The re search was con ducted on Jan u ary un til May 2002 at
Mo lec u lar Bi ol ogy and Im mu nol ogy Lab o ra tory of Es tate Bio tech nol ogy Ex per i men tal Unit Bogor The ob jec tive of
this study was to de ter mine the ge netic vari abil ity be tween man go steen mother plants and their off springs. Plant ma te -
ri als used were three man go steen mother plants from West Sumatera i.e. Balai Baru (in clud ing in Padang mu nic i pal -
ity), Padang Laweh, and Subarang Sukam (both in clud ing in Sawahlunto/Sijunjung re gency) and their off springs. The
off springs were one year old seed ling which was de rived from each mother plants. Ge netic vari abil ity was ob served by
us ing RAPD tech nique and five se lected prim ers i.e.: SB-13 (AGTCAGCCAC), SB-19 (CAGCACCCAC), OPH-12
(ACGCGCATGT), OPH-13 (CACGCCACAC), and OPH-18 (GAATCGGCCA). The re sults showed that there were
ge netic variabilities be tween the mother plants and their off spring as in di cated by dis sim i lar i ties of DNA band ing pat -
terns. The av er age of ge netic vari abil ity for the off spring was 56.35%. This re sults would sup port the in for ma tion
about the pres ence of ge netic vari abil ity on man go steen and lead ing to va ri etal im prove ment op por tu nity through
se lec tion of in dig e nous pop u la tion.

Keywords


Garcinia mangostana L.; Ge netic vari abil ity; Mother plant; Off spring; RAPD.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v14n4.2004.p229-237

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