Efektivitas Antifungi Ekstrak Curcuma aeruginosa terhadap Patogenisitas Colletotrichum capsici pada Tanaman Cabai Merah (Antifungi Effectivity of Curcuma aeruginosa Extract to Colletotrichum capsici Pathogenicity on Red Chilli Pepper)

Anella Retna Kumala Sari, Arrohmatus Syafaqoh Li’aini

Abstract


Antraknosa yang disebabkan oleh Colletotrichum capsici masih menjadi penyakit utama yang menyerang buah cabai merah. Selama ini, penggunaan Curcuma aeruginosa sebagai antimikrobe patogen penyebab penyakit pada manusia lebih populer daripada sebagai antimikrobe fitopatogen. Rimpang Curcuma diketahui mengandung senyawa volatil/atsiri dan nonvolatil. Potensi senyawa volatil/atsiri Curcuma sebagai antimikrobe telah banyak dilaporkan, namun masih sangat terbatas untuk senyawa nonvolatilnya. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui efektivitas antifungi senyawa nonvolatil dari ekstrak C. aeruginosa terhadap C. capsici pada buah cabai merah. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan November 2014 hingga Mei 2015 di Universitas Brawijaya. Senyawa nonvolatil didapatkan dengan merendam rimpang C. aeruginosa menggunakan pelarut metanol kemudian didistilasi menggunakan rotary vacuum evaporator dan diidentifikasi menggunakan HPLC. Efektivitas antifungi senyawa nonvolatil dari ekstrak rimpang C. aeruginosa diuji secara in vitro dan in vivo di laboratorium menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap dengan tiga kali ulangan. Perlakuan yang diujikan yaitu konsentrasi senyawa nonvolatil terdiri atas 0 (kontrol), 4, 6, 8, 10, dan 12 ppm. Senyawa nonvolatil dari ekstrak rimpang C. aeruginosa sangat efektif menghambat pertumbuhan C. capsici baik secara in vivo maupun in vitro di laboratorium bahkan konsentrasi 12 ppm menunjukkan persentase penghambatan antraknosa hingga 100%. Hasil identifikasi HPLC menunjukkan bahwa senyawa nonvolatil dari ekstrak rimpang C. aeruginosa mengandung kelompok Curcuminoid yang terdiri atas curcumin dan demethoxycurcumin yang berperan sebagai antifungi sehingga sangat berpotensi dikembangkan sebagai fungisida nabati.

Keywords

Antraknosa; Cabai merah; C. aeruginosa; Senyawa nonvolatil

Abstract

Anthracnose caused  by Colletotrichum capsici  is  still  as  major disease against  chilli pepper fruit. During this time, utilization of C. aeruginosa as pathogen antimicrobial caused disease to human is more popular than to crops. Curcuma has been known containing volatile and nonvolatile compound. Potential of volatil compound from Curcuma as antipathogen has been reported widely, nevertheless it is still limited known for nonvolatile compound. This research aimed to understand the antifungi effectivity of nonvolatile compound from C. aeruginosa extract to C. capsici on chilli pepper fruit. Research was conducted in November 2014 to Mei 2015. Nonvolatile compound was obtained by soaking C. aeruginosa rhizome into methanol solvent then distilated using rotary vacuum evaporator  and identified with HPLC instrument. Antifungi  effectivity  of nonvolatile compound  from  C. aeruginosa  extract  was experimented by in vitro and in vivo test using Completely Randomized Design with three replications. Treatments tested were various concentrations of nonvolatile compound namely 0 (control), 4, 6, 8,10, and 12 ppm. Nonvolatile compound from C. aeruginosa extract was highly effective to inhibit growth of C. capsici by both in vitro and in vivo test. HPLC identification result showed nonvolatile compound from C. aeruginosa extract contains Curcuminoid group play role as antifungi. 


Keywords


Chilli pepper fruit; C. aeruginosa; Nonvolatile compound

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v30n2.2020.p%25p

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