Pengaruh Kemasan terhadap Daya Simpan Umbi Bibit, Pertumbuhan, dan Hasil Bawang Putih

Raden Prasodjo Soedomo

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Di Indonesia bawang putih sudah merupakan bumbu masakan yang merakyat. Untuk konsumsi saat ini sebagian besar umbi berasal dari impor, padahal banyak daerah dataran tinggi di Indonesia yang sangat baik untuk penanaman bawang putih. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui jenis pengemas yang terbaik guna memperpanjang daya simpan umbi bibit bawang putih serta pertumbuhan dan hasil di lapangan. Percobaan telah dilakukan di Laboratorium Benih, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Sayuran, Lembang (1.250 m dpl), pada bulan Oktober 2004–Februari 2005. Penelitian dilanjutkan di lapangan untuk observasi terhadap penampilan umbi bibit. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah acak lengkap untuk penelitian di laboratorium benih dan acak kelompok untuk penelitian di lapangan, dengan model rancangan petak terpisah, terdiri atas 4 ulangan dan 7 perlakuan. Perlakuan terdiri dari (1) kantong plastik + batu kapur, (2) kantong plastik + batu kapur (CaCO3) + O2, (3) kantong plastik + Aquastore, (4) kantong plastik + Aquastore + O2, (5) rajut plastik, (6) kantong kertas semen + batu kapur, dan (7) kantong kertas semen + Aquastore. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa pengemasan umbi bibit bawang putih yang berdampak terhadap pertumbuhan dan hasil terbaik adalah penggunaan jaring plastik dengan daya simpan 57 hari dan kerusakan 9,6%. Di lapangan tinggi tanaman pada umur 14, 28, 42, 56, dan 70 HST masing-masing adalah 6,00; 12,23; 30,00; 40,75; dan 49,0 cm, dengan daya tumbuh 87,60%. Bobot hasil per lubang tanaman 80,80 g, dan siung per umbi 10,80 buah, dan diameter umbi lapis 32,10 cm. Pengemas dalam kondisi tertutup dapat menggunakan kertas semen, dengan penyerap batu kapur maupun Aquastore, dengan nilai kerusakan pada penyimpanan masing-masing adalah 12,5 dan 11,00%, dan daya simpan masing-masing 62,0 hari. Di lapangan mempunyai daya tumbuh 92,80, 97,90% dan tinggi tanaman pada umur 14, 28, 42, 56, dan 70 HST masing masing adalah 6,90; 12,60; 30,90; 41,15; dan 49,27cm (penyerap kapur), dan 8,43; 14,50; 32,25; 42,50; dan 51,80 cm (penyerap Aquastore). Bobot umbi per lubang tanaman 78,60 dan 77,70 g, jumlah siung per lubang tanaman 10,60 dan 10,70 siung, dan diameter umbi lapis anakan 31,90 dan 30,66 cm.

ABSTRACT. Soedomo, R.P. 2006. Effect of packaging materials on the keeping quality of seedbulbs, the growth, and yield performance of garlic. Garlic as cooking spices was widely used in Indonesia. Most of the garlic consumed was imported in fact that some potential higlands suitable for planting garlics were ignored. The objectives of the study were to find out the best packaging materials for seed bulbs and its impact to growth and yield in the field. The trial was conducted at the seed laboratory of Indonesian Vegetable Research Institute at Lembang (1,250 m asl) in October 2004-February 2005. The subsequent planting was done in the research field of the institute to observe the performance of the seedbulbs. The experimental design was CRD for storage laboratory study and RCBD for field observation, with a split plot design. There were 7 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments were (1) polyethylene wrap + CaCO3, (2) polyethylene wrap + CaCO3 + O2, (3) polyethylene wrap + Aquastore, (4) polyethylene wrap + Aquastore + O2, (5) polyethylene plastic net, (6) cement paper bag + CaCO3, and (7) cement paper bag + Aquastore. The results showed that the best packaging material was plastic net with seed bulb damages of 9.6%, and storage life of 57 days. The plant height at 14, 28, 42, 56, and 70 days after planting (dap) were 6.00, 12.23, 30.00, 40.75, and 49.0 cm respectively. The yield per plant was 80.80 g. Number of bulblet per bulb was 10.80, and diameter of bulb was 32.10 cm. Cement paper, with absorber materials of limestone and Aquastore showed damages of 12.5 and 11.0% respectively. The keeping quality stood for 62.0 days. The plant height at 14, 28, 42, 56, and 70 dap were 6.90, 12.60, 30.90, 41.15, and 49.27 cm (limestone absorber), and 8.43, 14.50, 32.25, 42.50, and 51.80 cm (Aquastore absorber) respectively. The plant survival in the field were 92.80 and 97.90%. The number of bulblets were 78.60 (limestone) and 77.70 (Aquastore).

Keywords


Allium sativum; Bulbseeds; Packaging material; Keeping quality; Growth; Yield.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v16n4.2006.p%25p

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