Patogenisitas Isolat Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin dalam Mengendalikan Hama Penggerek Bonggol Pisang, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar

Ashol Hasyim, Azwana -

Abstract


Penelitian ini dilakukan di laboratorium Hama dan Penyakit, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Buah Solok pada bulan Mei sampai Oktober 2002. Sampel tanah dikoleksi dari sentral produksi pisang di daerah Baso, Sei Tarab, Sei Sariek, dan Sikabau Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui pengaruh dosis spora Beauveria bassiana terhadap serangga dewasa dan fase kerentanan serangga pradewasa dan dewasa hama penggerek bonggol pisang. Penelitian ditata dalam rancangan acak lengkap dengan tiga ulangan dan dua belas perlakuan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa secara umum efektivitas B. bassiana meningkat dengan meningkatnya dosis untuk keempat isolat yang diuji. Terlihat perbedaan yang nyata infektivitas untuk semua  isolat B. bassiana. Mortalitas serangga dewasa hama penggerek bonggol pisang yang disebabkan oleh jamur entomopatogen B. bassiana dari isolat Baso, Sei Tarab, Sei Sariek, dan Sikabau pada konsentrasi tertinggi (3,2X108 konidia/ml) setelah 14 hari perlakuan berturut-turut adalah 96,67; 90,00;60,00;  dan  83,33%. Jumlah  konidia  yang  dibutuhkan  isolat Baso  untuk  mematikan  50%  serangga  dewasa Cosmopolites sordidus relatif lebih rendah (17.782,79 konidia/ml) dan waktu yang dibutuhkan untuk mematikan 50% serangga uji juga lebih singkat (LT 50 = 7,22 hari) dibanding ketiga isolat lainnya. Isolat Baso memiliki patogenisitas yang lebih tinggi dibanding ketiga isolat lainnya. Mortalitas stadia hama penggerek bonggol pisang berkisar 76,67% sampai 100% setelah 15 hari diinokulasi dengan jamur B. bassiana. Mortalitas stadia larva 2 C. sordidus relatif tinggi dibanding dengan stadia uji lainnya pada 15 hari setelah inokulasi. Hasil penelitian ini meberikan informasi bahwa jamur B. bassiana mempunyai potensi untuk dikembangkan sebagai  agens pengendali hama penggerek bonggol.

Kata kunci: Musa sp; Patogenisitas; Beauveria  bassiana; Cosmopolites sordidus; Penggerek bonggol; Mortalitas

ABSTRACT. This experiment was conducted at the labora- tory of Entomologiy, Indonesian Fruit Research Institute from May to October 2002. The soil samples were collected from banana production centers at Baso, Sei Tarab, Sei Sariek and Sikabau. The objectives of this experiment were to investigate the influence of spore dose on the infectivity of the isolates against adult and the susceptibility host of im- mature stages and mature stage of banana weevil which were treated with B. bassiana isolates. A completely random- ized design with twelve treatments and three replications were used in this study. The result showed that the effectiveness of the B. bassiana from four isolates increased with increasing spore dose. There was a significant differ- ent in infectivity of all isolates of B. bassiana. The adult banana weevil mortalities caused by entomopathogen fungi of B. bassiana isolate from Baso, Sei Tarab, Sei Sariek and Sikabau at highest density (3.2X108 conidia/ml) after two weeks were 96.67%, 90.00%, 60.00%, and 83.33% respectively. The aqueous suspension of B. bassiana conidia from isolate Baso was the lowest with LC50’s of 1778289 conidia/ml and a Lethal time 50’s was faster 7.22 days compare than other isolate. It means that isolate B. basiana from Baso has higher patogenicity than other isolate. The mortality of banana weevil stages ranging from 76.67% to 100% at 15 days after inoculation of B. Bassiana. Mortality of larva at the second stadia was relatively higher compared to the other stadia of banana corm borers. This study was undertaken to provide more information on the potential for developing B. bassiana as a control agent for the banana weevil borer.


Keywords


Musa sp; Patogenicity; Beauveria bassiana; Cosmopolites sordidus; Weevil borer; Mortality

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v13n2.2003.p120-130

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