Efek Mulsa terhadap Penampilan Fenotipik dan Parameter Genetik pada 13 Genotip Kentang di Lahan Sawah Dataran Medium Jatinangor

- Ruchjaniningsih

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Percobaan bertujuan mengevaluasi pengaruh mulsa terhadap penampilan fenotipik dan para-meter genetik pada 13 genotip kentang di lahan sawah dataran medium Jatinangor telah dilaksanakan di kebun percobaan Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Padjadjaran, Jatinangor, Sumedang dari bulan Juli sampai Oktober 2001. Percobaan ditata berdasarkan rancangan acak kelompok dengan 2 ulangan dan digunakan 13 genotip kentang termasuk kultivar Granola sebagai perlakuan pada lingkungan bermulsa dan tanpa mulsa. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa pada lingkungan bermulsa variabilitas genetik luas terdapat pada karakter tinggi tanaman, lebar kanopi, umbi kelas A, umbi kelas B, dan umbi kelas C. Variabilitas genetik di lingkungan bermulsa lebih luas daripada variabilitas di lingkungan tanpa mulsa. Nilai duga heritabilitas tinggi terdapat pada karakter jumlah cabang, umbi kelas A, dan umbi kelas C. Nilai duga heritabilitas di lingkungan bermulsa lebih tinggi daripada di lingkungan tanpa mulsa. Pada lingkungan tanpa mulsa semua karakter yang diamati variabilitasnya luas kecuali bobot umbi per plot. Nilai duga heritabilitas tinggi terdapat pada karakter jumlah cabang, bobot umbi per plot, umbi kelas A, dan umbi kelas C. Seleksi dapat dilakukan di lingkungan tanpa mulsa pada karakter komponen hasil dan hasil. Lingkungan bermulsa berpengaruh lebih baik terhadap karakter-karakter yang diamati. Penampilan karakter jumlah umbi per tanaman, bobot umbi per tanaman, dan bobot umbi per plot tidak dipengaruhi oleh interaksi genotip x lingkungan. Genotip FBA, Klon 101, dan Klon 102 unggul dalam karakter jumlah umbi per tanaman, bobot umbi per tanaman, dan bobot umbi per plot pada lingkungan bermulsa dan tanpa mulsa.

ABSTRACT. Ruchjaniningsih. 2006. The effect of mulch on phenotype and genetic parameter of 13 potato genotypes in paddy field at medium altitude Jatinangor. An experiment to evaluate the effect of mulch on performance and several genetic parameters of 13 genotypes of potato at medium wet land Jatinangor had been carried out at experiment station of Agriculture Faculty, Padjadjaran University, Jatinangor, Sumedang from July to October 2001. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with 2 replications and 13 genotypes of potato including Granola cultivar as treatments. Results of the experiment showed that mulching performed wide phenotypic variability on plant height, canopy width, number of A grade tuber, number of B grade tuber, and number of C grade tuber. Mulching condition performed wide genetic variability compared to nonmulching. High heritability estimates were obtained for number of branch, number of A grade tuber, and number of C grade tuber. Without mulching condition had a higher estimate of heritability compared to mulched. In without mulching condition all characters evaluated had wide variability, except for weight of tuber per plot. High heritability estimates were found for the number of branch, weight of tuber per plot, number of A grade tuber, and number of C grade tuber. Selection can be done at without mulching environment of yield and yield component characters. Mulching performed better on the observed characters. Number of tuber per plant, weight of tuber per plant and weight of tuber per plot were not influenced by genotype x environment interaction. FBA, clones 101, and clones 102 genotypes were superior in number of tuber per plant, weight of tuber per plant, and weight of tuber per plot in mulched and without mulching environment.

Keywords


Solanum tuberosum; Mulch; Genetic variability; Heritability; Yield component; Yield; Medium altitude.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v16n4.2006.p%25p

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