Pengaruh Jenis Kemasan dan Daya Simpan Umbi Bibit Bawang Merah terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Hasil di Lapangan

Raden Prasodjo Soedomo

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Dalam pengiriman umbi bibit bawang merah ke suatu daerah, seringkali mengalami kendala di dalam sistem kemasan, sehingga ketika bibit sampai ke lokasi, umbi bibit banyak yang rusak sebelum ditanam, karena serangan penyakit. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui jenis bahan pengemas yang terbaik guna memperpanjang daya simpan umbi bibit bawang merah dan dampaknya terhadap pertumbuhan dan hasil di lapangan. Percobaan dilakukan di Laboratorium Benih dan uji pertumbuhan di lapangan Balai Penelitian Tanaman Sayuran, Lembang (1.250 m dpl), pada bulan Oktober 2004–Februari 2005. Penelitian di lapangan selanjutnya untuk observasi terhadap penampilan umbi bibit. Menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap untuk penelitian di penyimpanan dan rancangan acak kelompok untuk uji lapangan, dengan model rancangan petak terpisah, terdiri atas 4 ulangan dan 7 perlakuan, yaitu (1) kantong plastik + batu kapur (CaCO3), (2) kantong plastik + batu kapur (CaCO3) + O2, (3) kantong plastik + Aquastore, (4) kantong plastik + Aquastore + O2, (5) rajut plastik, 6) kantong kertas semen + batu kapur (Ca CO3), dan (7) kantong kertas semen + Aquastore. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa jenis pengemas jaring plastik adalah yang terbaik dengan kerusakan 12%, daya simpan mencapai 45 hari, persentase yang tumbuh di lapangan 96,0%, jumlah anakan 8,20 dan tinggi tanaman pada umur 14, 28, 42, dan 56 hst masing-masing adalah 12,70, 22,2, 27,50, dan 33,10 cm. Bobot umbi per rumpun basah dan kering masing-masing 120,5 dan 84,83 g. Pengemas dalam kondisi tertutup yang dapat dipergunakan adalah kertas semen, baik menggunakan bahan penyerap batu kapur maupun Aquastore dengan nilai kerusakan di penyimpanan masing-masing adalah 13,0 dan 15,5%, daya simpan masing-masing 52,0 hari, daya serap kelembaban mencapai 42,28 dan 516,0%. Persentase yang tumbuh di lapangan 96,6 dan 98,4%, jumlah anakan 7,95 dan 8,10, tinggi tanaman pada umur 14, 28, 42, dan 56 hst masing masing adalah 12,90, 19,20, 24,40, dan 30,71 cm (penyerap kapur) serta 12,80, 19,30, 24,50, dan 30,66 cm (penyerap Aquastore). Bobot hasil per rumpun basah dan kering 115,0 dan 82,10 g (penyerap kapur) dan 111,0 dan 80,50 g (penyerap Aquastore).

ABSTRACT. Soedomo, R.P. 2006. The effect of the packing material on storage life of shallot seedbulbs and its impact to the growth and yield in the field. In the transportation of shallot seedbulb often encounter a lot of damages due to diseases attacked caused by unproper packing material. The objectives of the study were to find out the best packing material to lengthen of keeping quality of shallot seedbulbs and its impact to the growth and yield in the field. The study were conducted at the laboratory and in the field of Indonesian Vegetables Research Institute at Lembang (1,250 m asl) on October 2004 to February 2005. The subsequent planting was done in the research field of the institute to observe the performance of the seedbulbs. The experimental design was CRD for the storage study and RCBD for the field study, with a split plot design. There were 7 treatments with 4 replications. The treatments were (1) polyethylene wrap + CaCO3, (2) polyethylene wrap + CaCO3 + O2, (3) polyethylene wrap + Aquastore, (4) polyethylene wrap + Aquastore + O2, (5) polyethylene plastic net, (6) cement paper bag + CaCO3, and (7) cement paper bag + Aquastore. The results showed that plastic net packing material was the best with seed damages only 12%, stored for 45 days, with growing capacity in field was 96.0%, the plant height at 14, 28, 42, and 56 days after planting (dap) were 12.70 cm; 22.20 cm; 27.50 cm; and 33.10 cm respectively and the number of bulblet was 8.20. The wet-weight and dry-weight of the bulb were 120.5 and 84.83 g respectively. The closed packaging using cement paper, with absorber materials of lime stone or Aquastore indicated that shallot seedbulbs can be stored for 52 days with seed damaged of 13.0 and 15.5% respectively. The capacity to absorb humidity were 42.28% (lime stone) and 5.16% (Aquastore). Growing capacity of seedbulb in the field were 96.6% (lime stone) and 98.4% (Aquastore). Plant height at 14, 28, 42, and 56 dap were, 12.90, 18.20, 24.40, and 30.71 cm (lime stone absorber) and 12.80; 19.30; 24.50 and 39.66 cm (absorber Aquastore) respectively. Number of bulblet 7.95 (lime stone) and 8.10 bulblet (Aquastore). The wet-weight dry-weight of the bulb per plant were 115.0 and 82.10 g (lime stone absorber) and 111.0 and 80.50 g (Aquastore absorber) respectively.

Keywords


Allium ascalonicum; Seedbulbs; Packing material; Keeping quality; Growth; Yield bulb weight

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v16n3.2006.p%25p

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