Kekerabatan 13 Genotip Anggrek Subtribe Sarcanthinae Berdasarkan Karakter Morfologi dan Pola Pita DNA

Suskandari Kartiningrum, N Hermiati, A Baihaki, M. H Karmana, N Toruan-Mathius

Abstract


Abnormalitas meiosis dan rendahnya fertilitas sering terjadi pada persilangan interspesifik maupun intergenerik pada beberapa  tanaman anggrek  subtribe  sarcanthinae.  Kendala  tersebut  mungkin  berkaitan  dengan  jauh-dekatnya hubungan kekerabatan. Hubungan kekerabatan antara dua individu atau populasi dapat diukur berdasarkan kemiripan dari sejumlah karakter, dengan asumsi karakter-karakter berbeda menggambarkan perbedaan susunan genetiknya. Penelitian dilakukan mulai Januari-Desember 2001. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui kekerabatan antar-13 genotip anggrek subtribe sarcanthinae serta korelasi antara jarak taksonomi berdasarkan karakter morfologi dan tingkat kemiripan berdasarkan pola pita DNA. Pengelompokan 13 genotip anggrek dianalisis berdasarkan 22 data morfologi dan 185 pita DNA yang diperoleh dari hasil amplifikasi 14 primer dekamer acak random amplified poly- morphic DNA berbasis polymerase chain reaction. Analisis gerombol  13 genotip anggrek subtribe sarcanthinae dilakukan berdasarkan karakter morfologi menggunakan rumus rataan jarak taksonomi dan berdasarkan pola  pita DNA menggunakan  rumus Nei & Li atau koefisien Dice. Dari hasil analisis  diperoleh matriks kemiripan yang digunakan untuk menentukan nilai korelasi antara hasil pengelompokan dengan data fenotipik dan data pola pita DNA. Hasil pengelompokan tanaman anggrek subtribe sarcanthinae berdasarkan karakter morfologi tidak konsisten dengan hasil yang diperoleh dari analisis pola pita DNA. Jarak genetik yang berasal dari data fenotip tidak dapat digunakan untuk menduga kemiripan genetik. Rataan jarak taksonomi 13 genotip anggrek berdasarkan karakter morfologi berkorelasi negatif (r = -0,586, P < 0,01) dengan tingkat kemiripan berdasarkan pola pita DNA.

Kata kunci : Anggrek; Kekerabatan; Jarak genetik; Subtribe sarcanthinae; Karakter morfologi; Pola pita DNA; Random amplified polymorphic DNA

ABSTRACT. Several interspesific and intergeneric hybrid of subtribe sarcanthinae showed meiotic abnor- mality and poor fertility. This condition was caused by the distant genetic relationship. Genetic relationships between individuals and populations can be measured based on similarity of traits, assuming that the different traits describe the genetic composition. This experiment was begun in January-December 2001. The objective of this study was to esti- mate the correlation between taxonomic distance based on phenotypic performance and genetic similarity based on DNA banding pattern among 13 different genotype of orchid member of subtribe sarcanthinae. The genetic relation- ship analysis among those genotypes was based on 22 morphological traits and 185 DNA bands generated from 14 random amplified polymorphic DNA primers by polymerase chain reaction procedure. Cluster analysis of the geno- types based on phenotypic performance was computed by average taxonomic distance and the DNA banding pattern was calculated by the Dice coefficient of Nei & Li. The analysis resulted in a distance and similarity matrix which was used to determine correlation value between phenotype and DNA. Subtribe sarcanthinae clusters were not consistent with DNA banding pattern. Genetic distance from phenotypic data can't be used to estimate genetic similarity distance based on phenotypic performance which was negatively correlated (r = -0.586, P < 0.01) with that of similarity based on DNA banding pattern.


Keywords


Orchid; Genetic relationship; Genetic distance; Subtribe sarcanthinae; Morphological trait; DNA banding pattern; Random amplified polymorphic DNA

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v13n1.2003.p7-15

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