Uji Kelayakan Teknis dan Finansial Penggunaan Pupuk NPK Anorganik pada Tanaman Kentang Dataran Tinggi di Jawa Barat

Nana Sutrisna, S Suwalan, I Ishaq

Abstract


Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Desa Alamendah, Kecamatan Rancabali, Kabupaten Bandung pada musim kemarau 2001. Lokasi penelitian termasuk lahan dataran tinggi dengan ketinggian 1.400 m dari permukaan laut dengan jenis tanah andosol. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui kandungan unsur hara beberapa jenis pupuk alternatif NPK anorganik dan pengaruhnya terhadap pertumbuhan, produksi, dan pendapatan usahatani kentang sebagai dasar penyusunan  rekomendasi teknologi penggunaan  pupuk  alternatif. Percobaan  menggunakan  rancangan  acak kelompok dengan delapan perlakuan dan empat ulangan. Hasil analisis tanah menunjukkan bahwa tanah di lokasi penelitian memiliki ketersediaan unsur N rendah, namun P2O5 dan K2O tinggi, serta pH tanah agak rendah (5,2). Hasil analisis hara dari beberapa jenis pupuk alternatif NPK anorganik menunjukkan bahwa kandungan unsur N, P2O5, dan K2O yang tertera pada label/kemasan tidak sesuai dengan hasil analisis di laboratorium. Dari 10 jenis pupuk yang diuji hanya 30% yang unsur N-nya sesuai, 40% unsur P2O5  sesuai,  dan 50% unsur K2O-nya yang sesuai. Pengaruh penggunaan pupuk NPK anorganik terhadap tinggi tanaman dan jumlah tunas tidak berbeda nyata dengan kontrol, namun pupuk NPK 20-9-9 dapat meningkatkan produksi  umbi sebesar 13,34% dari rata-rata produksi di tingkat petani. Pupuk NPK 20-9-9 pada tanaman kentang memberikan tingkat pengembalian marginal tertinggi, yaitu 1,74 (174%), sehingga paling menguntungkan dibandingkan perlakuan lainnya dan layak untuk direkomendasikan.

Kata kunci : Solanum tuberosum; Pupuk anorganik; Kentang; Lahan dataran tinggi; Pertumbuhan; Hasil.

ABSTRACT. The research of NPK fertilizers usage was carried out on dry season of 2001 in Alamendah village, Rancabali, Bandung. The experimental location was 1,400 meters above sea level and of andosol soils. The objective of the study was to investigate the composition of several NPK anorganic fer- tilizers and the effects on growth, yield, and profit for potato farming as the basis for technical recommendations re- garding the usage. The experimental was randomized block design with eight treatments and four replications. The soil analysis results showed that the plots were low in nitrogen availability while P2O5 and K2O levels were quite high. The investigation revealed that the stated compositions of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium on the respective la- bels were not in accordance with the results of laboratory analysis. Among ten fertilizers tested, the number actually containing the stated levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium were 30, 20, and 40% respectively. Plant height and number of shoots/plant were not significantly different from the control for any of the alternative fertilizers NPK anorganic used. The use of fertilizer NPK 20-9-9 showed an average yield increase of 13.34% over typical farmer pro- duction methods. The increase in yield was one of the main factors resulting in a marginal return of 174% for fertilizer NPK 20-9-9 as well. Form these results it appears the fertilizer NPK 20-9-9 may be recommended for potato farming in West Java.


Keywords


Solanum tuberosum; Anorganik fertilizers; Highland, Growth, Yield.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v13n1.2003.p67-75

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