Peranan Cendawan Mikoriza Arbuskula terhadap Peningkatan Serapan Hara Bibit Pepaya

Irwan Muas

Abstract


Telah dilakukan penelitian yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui peran lima jenis isolat cendawan mikoriza arbuskula dalam meningkatkan serapan hara dan biomassa dua kultivar bibit pepaya. Penelitian dilakukan di rumah kaca Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Padjadjaran, dari bulan Agustus 2001 hingga Januari 2002. Penelitian ini disusun berdasarkan rancangan acak kelompok pola faktorial dengan tiga ulangan. Faktor pertama adalah jenis isolat cendawan mikoriza terdiri dari kontrol, Glomus etunicatum, Glomus manihotis, Gigaspora margarita, Acaulospora tuberculata dan Scutellospora heterogama, dan faktor ke dua adalah kultivar pepaya Dampit dan Sari Rona. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa derajat infeksi akar bibit pepaya pada umur dua bulan setelah inokulasi dipengaruhi oleh efek interaksiantara isolat cendawan mikoriza dan kultivar pepaya. Isolat A. tuberculata, G. etunicatum dan Gi. margarita menunjukkan derajat infeksi akar yang sangat tinggi, yaitu lebih  dari 76% untuk kedua kultivar pepaya, sedangkan dua jenis isolat  lainnya menunjukkan tingkat infeksi yang lebih rendah (21,33%-59,67%). Serapan hara N, P, K, dan bobot kering pupus, secara mandiri dipengaruhi oleh jenis isolat cendawan mikoriza dan kultivar pepaya. Acaulospora tuberculata dan G. etunicatum meningkatkan bobot kering total bibit berturut-turut 1.028% dan 1.632% lebih tinggi dibanding kontrol. Kultivar Sari Rona menunjukkan serapan hara N, P, K, dan bobot kering pupus lebih tinggi dibanding kultivar Dampit. Prospek aplikasi cendawan mikoriza untuk tanaman pepaya cukup baik, namun masih memerlukan penelitian lebih lanjut untuk mengetahui keefektifan dalam efisiensi penggunaan pupuk.

Katakunci:  Carica papaya; Bibit; Mikoriza arbuskula; Serapan hara; Pertumbuhan.

ABSTRACT. Muas, I. 2003. Role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus on nutrient uptake of papaya seedlings. An experiment was aimed to find out the role of five arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus isolates in increasing nutrient uptake and biomass production on two cultivars of papaya seedling. The research was conducted at a screen house of Agriculture Faculty, Padjadjaran University, from August 2001 until January 2002. This experiment was laid in Randomized Blocks Design in factorial pattern with three replications. The first factor was the kind of mycorrhizaes isolates, control, Glomus etunicatum, Glomus manihotis, Gigaspora margarita, Acaulospora tuberculata and Scutellospora heterogama, and the second factor was papaya cultivars Dampit and Sari Rona. The results  showed that root infection level of papaya seedlings on two months after inoculation influenced by interactions between mycorrhizaes isolate and papaya cultivars. Acaulospora tuberculata, G. etunicatum, and Gi. margarita isolates showed very high root infection level which was higher than 76% from both papaya cultivars, whereas two other mycorrhizaes isolate showed the lower infection 21.33-59.67%. Nutrient uptake on N,P,K, and shoot dry weight, in autonomous caused by kinds of mycorrhizaes isolate and papaya cultivars. Acaulospora tuberculata and G.etunicatum isolates  increased total dry weight 1,028% and 1,632% respectively higher than control. Sari Rona cultivar showed higher nutrient uptake on N, P, K, and shoot dry weight than Dampit cultivar. The mycorrhizaes application for papaya have good prospect, but there needs further studies to know the effectiveness in fertilizer efficiency.


Keywords


Carica papaya; Seedlings; Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus (AMF); Nutrient uptake, Growth

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v13n1.2003.p%25p

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