Analisis Anggaran Parsial dan Usahatani Teknik Semai pada Budidaya Bawang Merah True Shallot Seed (Partial and Farm Budget Analysis of Some Sowing Techniques in TSS Cultivation)

Witono Adiyoga, Mathias Prathama, Rini Rosliani

Abstract


Penelitian ini diarahkan untuk mendapatkan informasi kelayakan ekonomis berbagai cara semai serta melakukan analisis usahatani budidaya true shallot seed (TSS). Percobaan dilakukan di Brebes, Jawa Tengah, April–September 2017. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Kelompok dengan enam kombinasi perlakuan metode semai (sebar, garit, dan soil-block) dan umur semai (30 dan 45 hari). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa cara semai soil-block umur 30 hari menghasilkan bobot umbi tertinggi. Produksi per hektar semai soil-block umur 30 hari adalah 29,3 ton/ha (bobot segar) atau 17,7 ton/ha (bobot kering). Indikator B/C ratio tertinggi (0,75) dan tingkat pengembalian marjinal tertinggi (27,769%) mengindikasikan bahwa cara soil-block umur 45 hari merupakan perlakuan yang paling ekonomis. Harga per semaian berkisar antara Rp37,6 – 42,6 sehingga biaya total semaian adalah Rp24,4 – 27,7 juta per hektar. Biaya sebesar ini berpotensi menghapus salah satu advantage penggunaan TSS karena tidak lebih murah dibanding biaya benih umbi per hektar. Walaupun menunjukkan potensi hasil cukup tinggi (18–29 ton/ha), namun karena efisiensi lahan rendah (54%) serta susut bobot tinggi (56%) maka probabilitas mengalami kerugian masih cukup tinggi. Hasil studi menyarankan penelitian lanjutan yang diarahkan untuk menekan biaya produksi semaian, meningkatkan produktivitas, meningkatkan efisiensi lahan, dan menurunkan susut bobot umbi.

Keywords

Benih biji botani; Cara semai; Kelayakan ekonomis; Analisis anggaran parsial  

Abstract

The study aimed to assess the economic feasibility of sowing methods and farm-budget of TSS cultivation. A trial was conducted in Brebes, Central Java (April–September 2017). RCBD with six treatment combinations of sowing method and sowing age, and four replications was employed. Results indicate that seedlings from soil block (30 days) produce the highest tuber weight. The fresh yield of using soil-block (30 days) is 29.3 tons/ha, while the dry yield is 17.7 tons/ha. Based on the highest B/C ratio and highest marginal rate of return, the soil-block (45 days) is assessed as the most feasible sowing method. The cost per seedling ranges from IDR 37.6 – 42.6, thus the total seedling cost is  IDR 24.4 – 27.7 millions/ha. This may potentially eliminate one advantage of using TSS because the seedling cost is not lower than the cost of purchasing seed bulbs. Producing high fresh yield (18 – 29 tons/ha) could not compensate low land efficiency (54%) and high weight loss (56%), so that the loss probability is still quite high. The study recommends further works needed to lower seedling cost, increase yield, increase land efficiency, and reduce the bulb weight loss.


Keywords


True shallot seed; Sowing methods; Economic feasibility; Partial budget analysis

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v30n1.2020.p97-106

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