Pengaruh Magnesium, Boron, dan Pupuk Hayati terhadap Produktivitas Cabai serta Serangan Hama dan Penyakit (Effect of Magnesium, Boron, and Biofertilizers on Chili Pepper Productivity and Impact of Pests and Diseases)

Wiwin Setiawati, Ahsol Hasyim, Bagus Kukuh Udiarto, Abdi Hudayya

Abstract


Penggunaan pupuk hayati dan unsur hara makro sekunder seperti magnesium (Mg) dan hara mikro boron (B) diketahui dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan, kualitas hasil tanaman, meningkatkan unsur hara dalam tanah serta mampu meningkatkan ketahanan tanaman terhadap serangan hama dan penyakit. Selain itu penggunaan pupuk tersebut dapat mengurangi kebutuhan terhadap pupuk kimia sintetis. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui pengaruh aplikasi Mg, B, dan kombinasinya dengan pupuk hayati terhadap pertumbuhan dan hasil panen serta penekanan serangan hama dan penyakit. Penelitian dilakukan di Kebun Percobaan Balai Penelitian Tanaman Sayuran, Lembang, Jawa Barat (1.250 m dpl.) dari bulan Juni 2018 sampai bulan Februari 2019. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Kelompok terdiri atas delapan perlakuan dan empat ulangan. Perlakuan yang diuji adalah aplikasi Mg, B, dan kombinasi dengan pupuk hayati serta teknologi konvensional sebagai pembanding. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap pertumbuhan tanaman (tinggi tanaman dan luas kanopi), komponen hasil dan hasil serta serangan hama dan penyakit penting yang menyerang tanaman cabai. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kombinasi Mg, B, dan pupuk hayati yang diaplikasikan sebanyak dua kali pada umur 30 HST dan 45 HST mampu meningkatkan produktivitas cabai sebesar 21,68 ton/ha atau meningkat sebesar 54,53% dibandingkan dengan kontrol. Peningkatan produktivitas cabai terjadi karena adanya perbaikan dalam komponen hasil seperti jumlah bunga, jumlah buah, panjang, dan bobot buah serta adanya penekanan terhadap serangan hama dan penyakit seperti trips, antraknosa, lalat buah, dan penggerek buah sebesar 18,10% sampai 23,93%.

Keywords

Capsicum annuum; Unsur hara makro; Pupuk hayati; Produktivitas; Organisme pengganggu tumbuhan

Abstract

The use of biofertilizer and macro and micro nutrients enhanced the growth and development, yield quality of vegetable crops as well as nutrient status of soil to a greater extent and to increased on pests and diseases resistance. Organic sources of nutrients including biofertilizers also economize the use of chemical fertilizers. The objectives of this study were to determine the best combination of Mg, B, and biofertilizer that increase the growth and yield of chili pepper and the impact to pest and diseases on chili pepper. The field experiment was conducted at the experimental field of the Indonesian Vegetable Research Institute, Lembang, West Java from June 2018 to February 2019. The experiment was arranged in a Randomized Block Design with eight treatments and four replicated. The treatments were Mg, B, and their combinations with biofertilizer compared to the conventional technologies as a control. The observations were carried out on the growth parameters (plant height and leaf canopy), yield components, pest and diseases of chili pepper. The results showed that the combinations of Mg, B, and biofertilizer increased the yield of chili up to 21.68 ton/ha or positive interaction beside beneficial agent with Mg, B, and biofertilizer package on 54.53%. Increased productivity of chili occurs because of improvements in yield components such as the number of flowers, number of fruits, fruit length and fruit weight and reduction of pest and disease attacks such as thrips, anthracnose, fruit flies and, fruit borers by 18.10% to 23.93%.


Keywords


Capsicum annuum; Micro nutrient; Biofertilizer; Productivity; Pest and diseases

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v30n1.2020.p65-74

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