Pengaruh Pemangkasan Tajuk Terhadap Produktivitas dan Mutu Buah Jeruk Keprok Pulung (Effect of Pruning Canopy on Productivity and Fruit Quality of Mandarin cv Pulung)

Agus Sugiyatno, nFN Yenni, Buyung Al Fanshuri

Abstract


Pemangkasan merupakan tindakan dalam budidaya tanaman yang berperan penting dalam mengatur percabangan tanaman. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemangkasan tajuk tanaman terhadap produktivitas dan mutu buah jeruk keprok Pulung. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan Agustus 2015 – Agustus 2016 di Kebun Percobaan (KP) Tlekung Balai Penelitian Tanaman Jeruk dan Buah Subtropika (Balitjestro) pada tanaman jeruk keprok Pulung berumur 6 tahun. Penelitian berdasarkan Rancang Acak Kelompok (RAK) dengan lima perlakuan, yaitu pemangkasan pemeliharaan (P), pemangkasan bentuk V (V), pemangkasan lorong (L), pemangkasan samping (S), dan tidak dipangkas (K). Setiap perlakuan diulang lima kali dengan sembilan unit tanaman per ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa jumlah bunga tertinggi diperoleh pada perlakuan pemangkasan bentuk V (V), yaitu 85,30%, jumlah buah tertinggi pada perlakuan pemangkasan bentuk V (V) dan perlakuan pemangkasan samping (S) masing-masing sebesar 208,8 buah/pohon dan 201 buah/pohon. Rerata diameter dan bobot buah tertinggi diperoleh pada perlakuan pemangkasan pemeliharaan (P), yaitu 66,20 mm dan 143,75 g. Dari hasil analisis buah jeruk, total gula tertinggi (7,5%) dan total asam terendah (1,79%) diperoleh pada tanaman yang diperlakukan pemangkasan samping (S), sedangkan total karotenoid tertinggi (10,63 µg/g) terdapat pada tanaman yang diperlakukan pemangkasan lorong (L) dan kadar air yang tertinggi sebesar 90,08% dimiliki oleh tanaman kontrol (tanpa pemangkasan). Perlakuan pemangkasan samping (S) dapat direkomendasikan untuk diterapkan di petani karena menghasilkan jumlah buah yang tinggi dengan rasa yang manis.

Keywords

Jeruk; Kanopi; Pemangkasan; Produktifitas; Mutu buah

Abstract

Pruning plays an important role in regulating branching of fruit plants. This research was aimed to examine the effect of canopy pruning on productivity and fruit quality of mandarin cv Pulung. The study was conducted at the Experimental Farm Tlekung ICSFRI on 6 year old tree of mandarin cv. Pulung. The observation was carried out from August 2015 until August 2016. The study was analyzed by using a Randomized Block Design (RBD) with five treatments and five replicates. The treatments were consisted of pruning for maintenance (P), V shape pruning (V), alley shape pruning (L), side pruning (S), and unpruning (K). The results indicate that the highest number of flowers is shown by V shape pruning treatment (V) i.e. 85.30%, the highest number of fruits is performed by V shape pruning treatment (V) and side pruning treatment (S), with the average of 208.8 and 201 fruits per tree. The mean fruit diameter and weight is the highest in pruning for maintenance treatment (P), i.e. 66.20 mm and 143.75 g, respectively. The highest total sugar (7.5%) and lowest total acid (1.79%) were obtained in the side pruning treatment (S), while the highest total caratenoid (10.63 µg / g) was found in the alley pruning treatment (L) and the highest water content of 90.08% is owned by the control (unpruning). Results of the study suggest that side pruning treatment (S) can be recommended as the best pruning practice to farmers since it may produce highest number of fruits and sweetest taste.


Keywords


Citrus; Canopy; Pruning; Productivity; Fruit quality

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v29n2.2019.p199-208

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