Pengelolaan Air dan Mulsa pada Tanaman Bawang Merah di Lahan Kering (Water Management and Mulch on Shalot in Dry Land)

Zainal Arifin, Moh. Saeri

Abstract


Budidaya bawang merah di lahan kering mempunyai ketersediaan air terbatas sehingga diperlukan pengelolaan air secara efisien. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperoleh interval waktu pemberian air yang efisien dan jenis mulsa yang dapat meningkatkan produksi dan pendapatan usahatani bawang merah. Penelitian pengelolaan air dengan interval pengairan dan mulsa pada bawang merah varietas Monjung dilaksanakan pada MK II 2016 dalam luasan 2.500 m2 (ukuran petak 15 m x 6 m) di Desa Bunbarat, Kecamatan Rubaru, Kabupaten Sumenep, disusun secara acak kelompok faktorial dengan sembilan perlakuan dan tiga ulangan, yaitu: faktor I (mulsa): (a) mulsa plastik, (b) mulsa jerami, dan (c) tanpa mulsa, sedangkan faktor II (pengairan): (a) 1 hari sekali, (b) 2 hari sekali, dan (c) 3 hari sekali. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan mulsa jerami disertai pengairan 2 hari sekali memberikan bobot umbi 7,89 ton/ha dan penggunaan air selama pertumbuhan tanaman sebesar 1.230 m3/ha sehingga untuk menghasilkan 1 kg umbi dibutuhkan 156 liter air. Berdasarkan hasil analisis usahatani bawang merah yang diberi mulsa jerami disertai pengairan 2 hari sekali dapat meningkatkan efisiensi penggunaan air dan biaya produksi serta mempunyai B/C ratio tertinggi (2,27) sehingga layak secara ekonomi.

Keywords

Pengelolaan air; Bawang merah; Mulsa; Lahan kering

Abstract

Shallot cultivation in dry land has limited water availability so needed to efficient water management. This study aims to obtain an efficient water time interval and mulch type that can increase production and farming income of shallot. Research on water management with irrigation interval and mulch on shallot of Monjung variety was implemented at dry season year 2016 in the area of 2,500 m2 (the size of plot 15 m long to 6 m width) at Bunbarat Village, Rubaru Subdistrict, Sumenep Regency were arranged of randomized block design by factorial with nine treatments and three replications : I (mulch): (a) plastic mulch, (b) straw mulch, and (c) without mulch, while factor II (irrigation): (a) irrigation every 1 day, (b) irrigation every 2 days, and (c) irrigation every 3 days. The results showed that straw mulch treatment with irrigation every 2 days gave a tuber weight of 7.89 ton/ha and the use of water during plant growth was 1,230 m3/ha so that to produce 1 kg of tubers required 156 liters of water. The analysis of shallot farming that is given mulch straw accompanied by irrigation every 2 days can increase the efficiency of water use and production costs and has the highest B/C ratio (2.27) so that it is economically feasible.


Keywords


Water management; Shallot; Mulch; Dry land

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v29n2.2019.p159-168

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